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Psychologist career essay

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Psychologist career essay

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body business plan Write a Winning Business Plan. B usiness P lanning. What are the psychologist career essay Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the preparation of a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for writing that plan. There is an additional benefit if you do business internationally. Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of your operation. It is the blueprint of your business and will provide you with the tools to analyze your operation and implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to phd, seek financing.

It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of your company's past and current operations and provide future projections. If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in psychologist career a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline. The following pages provide a suggested outline of the material to be included in term your business plan. Psychologist Career. Your final plan may vary according to your specific needs or individual requirements of your lender or investor.

Cover Sheet (Serves as the title page of your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the company. Name, title, address, phone number of debt, owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. Career Essay. Name of preparer. Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to application, major topics covered in psychologist career your plan) The executive summary is the up thesis phd abstract of your business plan. It summarizes the content and purpose of your finished plan, covering all of the key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is career essay unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is positioned to take advantage of) Capital Requirements, Breakdown of Uses of Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to Investors. (include only if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to the company) Competitors (direct and indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses.

Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the executive summary after you have completed your business plan. It is binding university birmingham a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan. What is included? This section should include a summary description of psychologist essay, your business statement followed by information on debt term the administrative end of psychologist career, your company. Summary Description of the Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of your business, telling when and why the company was formed. Then complete the for hrm summary by briefly addressing: mission (projecting short- and long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and why it is unique to your industry) strategy (give an overview of the strategy, focusing on short- and psychologist career essay, long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that your company will face, both internal and external) Products or Services. If you are the manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of a product: Describe your products.

Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Include information on suppliers and dissertation binding university, availability of materials. If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the products you sell. Include information about your sources and handling of psychologist essay, inventory and fulfillment. If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Forgiveness. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Career Essay. Describe your projected or current location.

Project costs associated with the location. Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents. Note: If location is important to marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Describe your legal structure and papers, why it is psychologist career advantageous for your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). Up Thesis. List the people who are (or will be) running the business. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. Career. (Include resumes in Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions? What are the necessary qualifications? How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for application for hrm, adding employees.

Accounting: What system will you set up for career, daily accounting? Who will you use for a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in mind.) What kinds of insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and who will you use for a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and term, theft of information (online and off). Essay. Project related costs.

Part II: The Marketing Plan. What is a marketing plan? The Marketing Plan defines all of the components of your marketing strategy. You will address the details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies. Overview and Goals of Your Marketing Strategy. Application. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends)

Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs) Method of Sales and Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and psychologist, packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of Customer Service Activities. Expected Outcomes of for nursing, Achieving Excellence. Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by existing companies after making periodic evaluations. Part III: Financial Documents.

The quantitative part of your business plan. This section of the business plan is the quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in psychologist career essay the organizational and marketing plans. Do not do this part of your plan until you have finished those two sections. Financial documents are the great modern essays records used to psychologist, show past, current, and projected finances. The following are the major documents you will want to include in your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on each other, utilizing information from the ones previously developed.

Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an outline giving the following information: Why you are applying for application school, financing. How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only essay if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to up thesis, disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over psychologist career, a period of time and is used for internal planning.

It is of prime interest to the lender and shows how you intend to essay on feudalism, repay your loan. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in and out of your business. Three-Year Income Projection. Career Essay. A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for your company for the next three years. Use the writing revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and psychologist career, project for writing up thesis phd, the next two years according to essay, expected economic and industry trends. Projected Balance Sheet. Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and Net Worth of your company at forgiveness papers term, end of psychologist, next fiscal year. The break-even point is the point at dissertation binding birmingham, which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of which exactly equals the income derived by their sales). This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically.

Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the activity of career, your business in the past. University. If your business is new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and you will add a Personal Financial History. If yours is an established business: you will include the following actual performance statements.

Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over a period of time (monthly, annually). It is psychologist a moving picture showing what has happened in your business and is an excellent tool for assessing your business. Your ledger is closed and phd, balanced and the revenue and expense totals transferred to career essay, this statement. Shows the condition of the business as of a fixed date. It is writing a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is strong or weak. It is essay usually done at the close of an accounting period. Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and (3) Net Worth. Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and balance sheets to develop a study of relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to compare your business with industry standards. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to industry standards will be especially critical in determining whether or not the loan or venture funds are justified.

Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin) Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to equity) Measures of Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the forgiveness papers term increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. Psychologist Career Essay. This is a summary of financial information about your company from its start to the present. The Business Financial History and Loan Application are frequently one and papers term, the same. If you have completed the rest of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to transfer to this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents. This section of essay, your plan will contain all of the records that back up the english statements and decisions made in the three main parts of your business plan. The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for owners and management.

A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and honors, and a focus on special skills relating to the company position. Owners' Financial Statements. A statement of personal assets and liabilities. For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Psychologist Career Essay. Business and term, personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and banks. Psychologist Career. Copies of Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of for nursing, Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. Psychologist Essay. (both business and personal references) Include all business contracts, both completed and currently in force. Other Legal Documents.

All legal papers pertaining to your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in papers term the main body of the plan. (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together. Psychologist Essay. When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the writing up thesis potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by you. A business plan will be the psychologist essay best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for success. It should be no more than 30 to application essay school, 40 pages in length, excluding supporting documents.

If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the others with your own copy where they will be available on career short notice. Great Essays. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach. Keep track of each copy that you give out. Essay. If you are turned down for financing, be sure to retrieve your business plan. Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only up thesis phd if you update it frequently to reflect what is career essay happening within your business. Measure your projections against forgiveness term what actually happens in your company. Use the career essay results to analyze the effectiveness of your operation. For Nursing School. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and psychologist career, make your business more profitable. Linda Pinson is a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator.

She is the on feudalism owner of Out of psychologist career essay, Your Mind. and Into the Marketplace#8482;, publisher of educational how-to books and software for new and established businesses. Job Training Letter For Hrm. Linda has authored nine books, one of psychologist career essay, which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and basis of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to essay for nursing school, Write a Business Plan. She is also the developer of Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and bookstores throughout the U.S. and have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Chinese and essay, other languages for foreign use. The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and also for training and development within corporations. Writing Phd. OUT OF YOUR MIND. AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414.

Copyright 1996-2015 Linda Pinson - All rights reserved.

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nrsa cover letter Part I Overview Information. Department of Health and Human Services. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), ( ) National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), ( ) National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ( ) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), ( ) National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), ( ) National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), ( ) Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of psychologist career essay, Child Health and great modern essays, Human Development (NICHD), ( ) National Institute on psychologist essay, Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), ( ) National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), ( ) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), ( ) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), ( ) National Institute of phd, General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), ( ) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), ( ) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), ( ) National Institute of essay, Nursing Research (NINR), ( ) National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), ( ) National Center for dissertation university birmingham Research Resources (NCRR), ( ) This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is a reissue of PA-09-210. Update: The following update relating to this announcement has been issued:

February 10, 2011 - This PA has been reissued as PA-11-113. August 16, 2010 - IMPORTANT NOTE! NIH has eliminated the error correction window for due dates of January 25, 2011 and beyond. As of psychologist career essay, January 25, all corrections must be complete by the due date for an application to be considered on-time. See NOT-OD-10-123.

November 5, 2010 - See Notice NOT-OD-11-018 Notice of Need to great english essays Expire and psychologist, Reissue Fellowship Applications (Fs) to Comply with Language in essay in england New Application Forms. Program Announcement (PA) Number: PA-10-110. APPLICATIONS MAY NOT BE SUBMITTED IN PAPER FORMAT. This FOA must be read in essay conjunction with the application guidelines included with this announcement in for Grants (hereafter called A registration process is essay on feudalism, necessary before submission and applicants are highly encouraged to start the process at least four (4) weeks prior to the grant submission date. See Section IV. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Number(s) 93.866, 93.272, 93.855, 93.856, 93.286, 93.865, 93.173, 93.121, 93.847, 93.848, 93.849, 93.279, 93.113, 93.867, 93.859, 93.837, 93.838, 93.839, 93.233, 93.172, 93.282, 93.853, 93.361, 93.389, 93.846, 93.398. Release/Posted Date: February 16, 2010. Opening Date: March 8, 2010 (Earliest date an application may be submitted to psychologist career NOTE: On-time submission requires that applications be successfully submitted to no later than 5:00 p.m. local time (of the applicant institution/organization).

Council Review Date(s): Not applicable to Individual Fellowships. Additional Information To Be Available Date (URL Activation Date): Not Applicable. Expiration Date: New Date January 8, 2011 (per issuance of NOT-OD-11-018), Original Date: January 8, 2013. Due Dates for E.O. 12372. Additional Overview Content. Purpose . The purpose of this individual postdoctoral research training fellowship is to provide support to promising Fellowship Applicants with the potential to become productive, independent investigators in scientific health-related research fields relevant to essay for nursing the missions of participating NIH Institutes and Centers.

Mechanism of Support. Career. This FOA will utilize the Ruth L. Kirschstein Individual Postdoctoral National Research Service Award (NRSA) award mechanism (F32) . Funds Available and Anticipated Number of Awards. Because the nature and scope of the proposed research training will vary from application to application, it is anticipated that the size and duration of each award will also vary. The total amount awarded and the number of awards will depend upon debt forgiveness, the mechanism numbers, quality, duration, and costs of the applications received. Budget and psychologist, Project Period. Although the financial plans of the ICs provide support for this program, awards pursuant to this funding opportunity are contingent upon the availability of great essays, funds and the receipt of psychologist career essay, a sufficient number of meritorious applications. NRSA postdoctoral support normally may not exceed 3 years.

Application Research Strategy Length: The F32 Research Strategy section may not exceed 6 pages, including tables, graphs, figures, diagrams, and charts. See Eligible Institutions/Organizations. Institutions/organizations listed in Section III, 1.A. are eligible to apply. Eligible Project Directors/Principal Investigators (PDs/PIs). The PD/PI is the individual Fellowship Applicant. Applicants must be citizens or non-citizen nationals of the United States, or have been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence.

Individuals with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to undertake the proposed research training are invited to work with their institution/organization to develop an debt forgiveness papers application for support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH support. Career Essay. Number of PDs/PIs. Only one PD/PI may be designated on the application. Number of Applications. An individual may not have two or more competing NIH fellowship applications pending review concurrently. Up Thesis Phd. Resubmissions. Applicants may submit a resubmission application, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the previous peer review critique (Summary Statement). See new NIH policy on psychologist, resubmission (amended) applications (NOT-OD-09-003, NOT-OD-09-016).

Renewals. Awards are generally not renewable and are not transferable from one PD/PI to another. Application Materials. See Section IV.1 for application materials. General Information. For general information on SF424 (RR) Application and Electronic Submission, see these Web sites: SF424 (RR) Application and Electronic Submission Information: General information on Electronic Submission of Grant Applications: Hearing Impaired. Telecommunications for the hearing impaired are available at: TTY: (301) 451-5936.

Table of Contents. Part I Overview Information. Part II Full Text of Announcement. Section I. Funding Opportunity Description. 1. Essay For Nursing School. Research Training Objectives. 1. Mechanism of Support. 2. Funds Available. 1. Career Essay. Eligible Applicants. A. Eligible Institutions.

B. Eligible Individuals. 2. Cost Sharing or Matching. 3. Other-Special Eligibility Criteria. 1. On The Letter. Request Application Information. 2. Psychologist. Content and Form of Application Submission. 3. Submission Dates and modern, Times. A. Submission, Review, and Anticipated Start Dates. 1. Letter of Intent. B. Submitting an Application Electronically to the NIH. C. Application Processing.

4. Intergovernmental Review. 5. Funding Restrictions. 6. Career Essay. Other Submission Requirements. 2. Review and up thesis, Selection Process. 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates. 1. Award Notices. 2. Administrative and career, National Policy Requirements. 1. Scientific/Research Contact(s) 2. Peer Review Contact(s) 3. Financial/Grants Management Contact(s)

Part II - Full Text of Announcement. Section I. Funding Opportunity Description. 1. Research Training Objectives. The purpose of the term postdoctoral fellowship (F32) award is to career essay provide support to promising postdoctoral applicants who have the potential to become productive and successful independent research investigators. The proposed postdoctoral training must offer an great modern english opportunity to enhance the applicant's understanding of the health-related sciences, and must be within the broad scope of biomedical, behavioral, or clinical research or other specific disciplines relevant to the research mission of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers. Applicants with a health professional doctoral degree may use the proposed postdoctoral training to satisfy a portion of the degree requirements for a master's degree, a research doctoral degree or any other advanced research degree program. The NRSA legislation requires that the Nation’s overall needs for biomedical research personnel be taken into account by giving special consideration to physicians and other health professionals who propose to become active biomedical researchers and essay, who agree to undertake a minimum of application letter for hrm, 2 years of biomedical, behavioral or clinical research. Individuals from psychologist essay, diverse racial and ethnic groups and individuals with disabilities and individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds are always encouraged to essay apply for psychologist career essay NIH support. Each NIH Institute and Center (IC) has a unique scientific purview and different program goals and initiatives that evolve over time.

Prospective Fellowship Applicants are encouraged to contact the relevant NIH staff for IC-specific programmatic information: Table of Institute and Center Contacts. 1. Mechanism of Support. 2. Funds Available. Facilities and debt, Administrative (FA) costs are not allowed for fellowship awards. Stipends: Kirschstein-NRSA awards provide stipends to career fellows as a subsistence allowance to help defray living expenses during the research and clinical training experiences. The awards are not provided as a condition of employment with either the Federal government or the writing sponsoring institution. Psychologist Career Essay. For the most recent stipend levels, see the following website: The awarding NIH Institute will adjust awards on the anniversary date of the fellowship award to essay ensure consistency with the stipend level in psychologist career effect at that time.

No departure from the published Kirschstein-NRSA stipend schedule may be negotiated between the institution and papers, the fellow. Fellows with less than one full year of psychologist career, relevant postdoctoral experience at debt papers, the time of award will receive initial support at the zero level. Relevant experience may include research (including research in industry), teaching, internship, residency, clinical duties, or other time spent in full-time studies in a health-related field beyond that of the qualifying doctoral degree. The sponsoring IC will adjust awards on the anniversary date of the fellowship award to ensure consistency with the stipend schedule in effect at psychologist, that time. No departure from the published Kirschstein-NRSA stipend schedule may be negotiated between the institution and the fellow. The stipend for each subsequent year of essay, Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA support is the next level of experience using the stipend schedule in effect at that time.

For fellows sponsored by domestic non-federal institutions, the stipend will be paid through the sponsoring institution. For fellows sponsored by Federal institutions, the monthly stipend payment will be deposited in the fellow's U.S. bank account or paid directly to the fellow by U.S. Department of Treasury check. Tuition and essay, Fees: The NIH will contribute to essay the combined cost of tuition and fees at the rate in place at the time of award. Tuition, for the purposes of this policy, means the combined costs of tuition and fees. For the most recent tuition/fees levels, see the following website: Institutional Allowance: F ellows sponsored by nonfederal or nonprofit institutions (domestic or foreign) will receive an institutional allowance to help defray fellowship expenses such as health insurance, research supplies, equipment, books, and travel to scientific meetings. Self-only health insurance (available to fellows without families) or family health insurance is an allowable cost for fellows at the sponsoring institution only if such self or family health insurance is applied consistently to all persons in a similar training status and regardless of the source of support.

This allowance is intended to cover training-related expenses for the individual fellow and is not available until the fellow officially activates the essay award. If an individual fellow is enrolled or engaged in training for less than six months of the award year, only one-half of writing up thesis, that year's allowance may be charged to the grant. The Notice of Award will be revised and the balance must be returned to the NIH. NIH provides an institutional allowance to fellows sponsored by psychologist career essay, Federal laboratories or for-profit institutions for essay on feudalism expenses associated with health insurance, travel to scientific meetings and books. Psychologist Career. For fellows at writing phd, for-profit institutions, the institutional allowance will be paid to the institution for disbursement to the fellow.

Funds for fellows at Federal laboratories will be disbursed from the awarding IC. Funds are not available to psychologist cover the costs of travel between the fellow’s place of residence and great, a training institution. Psychologist Career Essay. However, in an individual case of extreme hardship, a one-way travel allowance may be authorized by the sponsoring institution. Such travel must be paid from the institutional allowance. For the most recent institutional allowance levels, see the following website: Other Training Costs: As part of this award, additional funds may be requested. In all cases, the additional funds requested must be reasonable in relationship to the total dollars awarded under the fellowship and must be directly related to the approved research training experience. Such additional funds shall be provided only in exceptional circumstances that are fully justified and explained by the sponsoring institution in the application. Reasonable accommodations: Additional funds may be requested by the sponsoring institution to make changes or adjustments in the academic or research environment that will make it possible for an otherwise qualified individual with disabilities to english essays perform the work necessary to meet the requirements of the degree program in which he/she is enrolled.

Individuals with disabilities are defined as those with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities (see: Americans with Disabilities Act Home Page). The accommodations requested under this program must be directly related to the work required to meet the requirements as regards to both course work and career essay, laboratory experience, and must be appropriate to the special needs of the applicant. Essay In England. Some types of accommodations that might be provided under this award include, but are not limited to: specialized equipment, assistive devices, and personnel such as readers, interpreters, or assistants. This award is not meant to relieve the sponsoring institution of its obligation to provide reasonable accommodations as defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act. NIH will not provide funds for infrastructure alterations such as lowering countertops, widening doorways, etc. Off-site research training: Additional funds may be requested by the sponsoring institution if the research training of a fellow involves extraordinary costs for travel to field sites remote from the sponsoring institution. Foreign site research training: Applications that include training at a foreign site may include a single economy or coach round-trip travel fare.

No allowance is career essay, provided for dependents. Writing Phd. U.S. flag carriers must be used to the maximum extent possible when commercial air transportation is available for travel between the United States and a foreign country or between foreign countries. Supplementation of Stipends, Compensation, And Other Income: The sponsoring institution is allowed to psychologist career provide funds to the fellow in addition to great modern english essays the stipend paid by the NIH. Such additional amounts either may be in the form of an augmented stipend (supplementation) or in the form of compensation, provided the psychologist career conditions described below are met. Under no circumstances may the conditions of stipend supplementation or the services provided for compensation interfere with, detract from, or prolong the fellow's approved Kirschstein-NRSA training program. See also: Stipend Supplementation: Supplementation, or additional support to offset the cost of living, may be provided by the sponsoring institution. Supplementation does not require additional effort from the fellow. DHHS funds may not be used for supplementation under any circumstances.

Additionally, no funds from other Federal agencies may be used for supplementation unless specifically authorized by the NIH and the other Federal agency. Compensation: The sponsoring institution may provide additional funds to a fellow in the form of compensation (as salary and/or tuition remission) for services such as teaching or serving as a research assistant. Dissertation Birmingham. A fellow may receive compensation for career essay services as a research assistant or in some other position on a Federal research grant, including a DHHS research grant. However, compensated services should occur on a limited, part-time basis apart from the normal research training activities, which require a minimum of essay on feudalism, 40 hours per week. In addition, compensation may not be paid from psychologist career essay, a research grant supporting the fellow's research training experience. Educational Loans or G.I. Bill: An individual may make use of Federal educational loan funds and essay, assistance under the Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act (G.I. Bill). Such funds are not considered supplementation or compensation. NIH Grants Policy: NIH grants policies as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement will apply to the applications submitted and awards made in response to this FOA. Section III.

Eligibility Information. 1. Eligible Applicants. 1.A. Eligible Institutions. Public/State Controlled Institutions of Higher Education Private Institutions of psychologist career essay, Higher Education Hispanic-s erving Institutions Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities (TCCUs) Alaska Native and great english, Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions Nonprofits with 501(c)(3) IRS Status (Other than Institutions of Higher Education) Nonprofits without 501(c)(3) IRS Status (Other than Institutions of Higher Education) For-Profit Organizations ( including Small Businesses) Non-domestic (non-U.S.) Entities (Foreign Organizations) Other(s): Eligible Agencies of the Federal Government. The sponsoring institution must have staff and career essay, facilities available on site to modern essays provide a suitable environment for career essay performing high-quality research training. The research training should occur in a research-intensive environment that has appropriate human and technical resources and is demonstrably committed to research training in great the particular program proposed by the applicant. Foreign sponsorship: An individual may request support for training abroad. In such cases, the applicant is required to provide detailed justification for the foreign training, including the reasons why the facilities, the career sponsor , or other aspects of the on feudalism proposed experience are more appropriate than training in a domestic setting. The justification is evaluated in essay terms of the scientific advantages of the foreign training as compared to the training available domestically. Foreign training will be considered for funding only when the scientific advantages are clear.

1.B. Eligible Individuals. Any individual(s) with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to debt forgiveness papers carry out the psychologist essay proposed research as the PD/PI is invited to work with his/her organization to develop an application for university birmingham support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and psychologist, ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH support. Citizenship: By the time of award, the modern english essays individual applicant must be a citizen or a non-citizen national of the United States or have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence (i.e., possess a currently valid Permanent Resident Card USCIS Form I-551, or other legal verification of such status). Career Essay. Non-citizen nationals are generally persons born in outlying possessions of the United States (i.e., American Samoa and Swains Island). Individuals on temporary or student visas are not eligible. Individuals may apply for the award in advance of admission to the United States as a Permanent Resident recognizing that no award will be made until legal verification of Permanent Resident status is provided.

Degree Requirements: Before a Ruth L. On The Letter For Hrm. Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral fellowship award can be activated, the essay individual must have received a PhD, MD, DO, DC, DDS, DVM, OD, DPM, ScD, EngD, Dr PH, DNSc, ND (Doctor of Naturopathy), PharmD, DSW, PsyD, or equivalent doctoral degree from an accredited domestic or foreign institution (it is the responsibility of the sponsoring institution to on the job training for hrm determine if a foreign doctoral degree is equivalent). Psychologist. Certification by an authorized official of the degree-granting institution that all degree requirements have been met is university, also acceptable. A Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship may not be used to support studies leading to career the MD, DO, DDS, DVM, or other similar health-professional degrees. Neither may these awards be used to support the clinical years of residency training. However, these awards are appropriate for the research fellowship years of a research-track residency program. Research clinicians must devote full-time to their proposed research training and confine clinical duties to up thesis those activities that are part of the research training program. 2. Cost Sharing or Matching. Number of Applications. An individual may not have two or more competing NIH fellowship applications pending review concurrently.

Resubmissions . Applicants may submit a resubmission application, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the previous peer review critique (Summary Statement). Beginning with applications intended for the January 25, 2009 official submission due date, all original new applications (i.e., never submitted) and competing renewal applications are permitted only a single amendment (A1). See new NIH policy on psychologist, resubmission (amended) applications (NOT-OD-09-003, NOT-OD-09-016). Original new and debt forgiveness term, competing renewal applications that were submitted prior to January 25, 2009 are permitted two amendments (A1 and A2). For these “grandfathered” applications, NIH expects that any A2 will be submitted no later than January 7, 2011, and NIH will not accept A2 applications after that date. Renewals. Awards are generally not renewable and are not transferable from one PD/PI to another. Fellowship awardees requiring further research training should contact the NIH awarding component to see if they may submit a renewal application.

Duration of Support: Individuals may receive up to 3 years of career essay, aggregate Kirschstein-NRSA support at the postdoctoral, including any combination of support from institutional training grants (e.g. T32) and an individual fellowship award. Great. However, it is psychologist essay, not possible to have concurrent NRSA support from application essay for nursing, two different sources (e.g., Individual F and T32). Applicants must consider any prior NRSA research training in determining the duration of support requested. Accurate information regarding previous Kirschstein-NRSA support must be included in the application and will be considered at the time of award. Training beyond the aggregate limit may be possible under certain exceptional circumstances, but a waiver from the NIH awarding component is required. Individuals seeking additional Kirschstein-NRSA support beyond the third year are strongly advised to consult with relevant NIH staff before preparing a justification.

Any waiver will require a detailed justification of the career essay need for additional research training. A waiver request should be made to the program official at the awarding NIH Institute at least six months prior to the termination date of the fellowship award. A request for a waiver cannot be made prior to the issuance of the initial award. Individuals are required to pursue their research training on a full-time basis, normally defined as 40 hours per great english week or as specified by the sponsoring institution in accordance with its own policies. Support for subsequent years of the fellowship award beyond the first budget period is based upon psychologist, evidence of great essays, satisfactory progress in the predoctoral research training program which is psychologist essay, determined by the NIH Program staff review of information documented in writing up thesis phd the progress report. Sponsor: Before submitting a fellowship application, the applicant must identify a sponsor (also called mentor or supervisor) who will supervise the training and research experience. The sponsor should be an active investigator in the area of the proposed research training and be committed both to essay the research training of the Fellowship Applicant and to the direct supervision the applicant’s research. The sponsor must document the availability of sufficient research support and facilities for high-quality research training.

The sponsor, or a member of the mentoring team, should have a successful track record of mentoring. Applicants are encouraged to great modern essays identify more than one mentor, i.e., a mentoring team, if this is deemed advantageous for providing expert advice in all aspects of the research and training program. In such cases, one individual must be identified as the principal sponsor who will coordinate the applicant’s research training program. The applicant must work with his/her sponsor(s) in preparing the application. The sponsor should describe the psychologist essay research training plan for the applicant (coordinated with the applicant’s research strategy). The sponsor and phd, any co-sponsors are also expected to provide an assessment of the applicant’s qualifications and potential for a research career. The research environment and the availability and quality of needed research facilities and research resources (e.g., equipment, laboratory space, computer time, available research support, etc.) must also be described. The description should include items such as classes, seminars, and opportunities for interaction with other groups and scientists. Training in career skills, e.g. grant-writing and presentation skills are strongly encouraged. Sponsoring Institution: Before submitting a fellowship application, the applicant must also identify a sponsoring institution. The sponsoring institution must have appropriate staff and facilities available on site to provide a suitable environment for essay performing high-quality research training and be demonstrably committed to research training in the particular program proposed by the applicant.

In most cases, the fellowship supports research training experiences in new settings in essay on feudalism order to career maximize the on the application letter for hrm acquisition of new skills and knowledge. Psychologist Career Essay. However, in dissertation binding university birmingham unusual circumstances, applicants may propose postdoctoral training experiences at psychologist career essay, their doctorate institution or at the institution where they have been training for more than a year. In such cases, the applicant must carefully document the opportunities for new research training experiences specifically designed to broaden his/her scientific background. Foreign Training: An individual may request support for foreign training. In such cases, applicants are required to provide detailed justification for the foreign training, including the reasons why the facilities, the sponsor, or other aspects of the proposed experience are more appropriate than training in a domestic setting. The justification will be evaluated in terms of the essay for nursing school scientific advantages of the foreign training as compared to the training available domestically. Foreign training will be considered for funding only when opportunities and the scientific advantages are clear.

Foreign Organizations: Several special provisions apply to applications submitted by foreign organizations. Additional information regarding foreign grants is available in the NIH Grants Policy Statement ( Section IV. Application and Submission Information. To download a SF424 (RR) Application Package and psychologist career, SF424 (RR) Application Guide for completing the SF424 (RR) forms for for nursing this FOA, use the “Apply for Grant Electronically” button in this FOA or link to and follow the directions provided on that Web site. Appropriate registrations with and eRA Commons must be completed on career essay, or before the due date in dissertation binding order to successfully submit an psychologist career essay application . Several of the steps of the registration process could take four weeks or more. Therefore, applicants should immediately check with their business official to determine whether their organization/institution is already registered with both and dissertation university birmingham, the Commons. All registrations must be complete by the submission deadline for the application to be considered “on-time” (see 3.C.1 for more information about on-time submission). A one-time registration is required for institutions/organizations at both: The PD/PI (Fellowship Applicant) should work with their institutions/organizations to make sure they are registered in the NIH eRA Commons.

Several additional separate actions are required before an applicant can submit an electronic application, as follows: 1) Organizational/Institutional Registration in Registered. Your organization will need to obtain a Data Universal Number System (DUNS) number and register with the career Central Contractor Registration (CCR) as part of the registration process. If your organization does not have a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) or Employer Identification Number (EIN), allow for on the application for hrm extra time. A valid TIN or EIN is necessary for CCR registration. Career. The CCR also validates the EIN against Internal Revenue Service records, a step that will take an additional one to two business days. Direct questions regarding registration to: Contact Center Phone: 800-518-4726. Business Hours: M-F 7:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m. On The Job Training Letter. Eastern Time. To find out if an organization is already Commons-registered, see the List of Grantee Organizations Registered in NIH eRA Commons.” Direct questions regarding the Commons registration to: eRA Commons Help Desk.

Phone: 301-402-7469 or 866-504-9552 (Toll Free) Business hours M-F 7:00 a.m. – 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. 3) Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) Registration in the NIH eRA Commons: Refer to the NIH eRA Commons System (COM) Users Guide . The individual designated as PD/PI on the application must be registered also in the NIH eRA Commons. Career Essay. The PD/PI must hold a PD/PI account in the Commons. Applicants should not share a Commons account for essay on feudalism in england both an Authorized Organization Representative/Signing Official (AOR/SO) role and a PD/PI role; however, if they have both a PD/PI role and an Internet Assisted Review (IAR) role, both roles should exist under one Commons account. Psychologist. This registration/affiliation must be done by the AOR/SO or his/her designee who is term, already registered in the Commons. Both the essay PD/PI and AOR/SO need separate accounts in the NIH eRA Commons since both are authorized to view the great modern essays application image. Note: The registration process is not sequential. Essay. Applicants should begin the registration processes for both and eRA Commons as soon as their organization has obtained a DUNS number. Only one DUNS number is required and the same DUNS number must be referenced when completing registration, eRA Commons registration and the SF424 (RR) forms.

1. Request Application Information. Note: Only the forms package directly attached to a specific FOA can be used. You will not be able to use any other SF424 (RR) forms (e.g., sample forms, forms from another FOA), although some of the essay on feudalism in england Attachment files may be useable for more than one FOA. 2. Psychologist Career Essay. Content and Form of Application Submission. Prepare all applications using the SF424 (RR) application forms for this FOA through and in accordance with the SF424 (RR) Application Guide ( The SF424 (RR) Application Guide is critical to submitting a complete and accurate application to NIH. Some fields within the SF424 (RR) application components, although not marked as mandatory, are required by NIH ( e.g., the binding university “Credential” log-in field of the “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component must contain the PD/PI’s assigned eRA Commons User ID ). Psychologist. Agency-specific instructions for such fields are clearly identified in the Application Guide. Great English Essays. For additional information, see “Frequently Asked Questions – Application Guide, Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” The SF424 (RR) application has several components.

Some components are required, others are optional. Psychologist. The forms package associated with this FOA in includes all applicable components, required and essay on feudalism, optional. Essay. A completed application in response to essay in england this FOA includes the data in the following components: SF424 (RR) (Cover component) Research Related Project/Performance Site Locations. Research Related Other Project Information. Research Related Senior/Key Person. PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form.

PHS398 Cover Letter File. Note: Specific instructions related to each of the components are included in the Individual Fellowship Application Guide SF424 (RR). Foreign Organizations ( Non-domestic [non-U.S.] Entities) NIH policies concerning grants to foreign (non-U.S.) organizations can be found in the NIH Grants Policy Statement at: Applications from Foreign organizations must: Request budgets in psychologist career U.S. dollars; Comply with Federal/NIH policies on human subjects, animals, and writing up thesis, biohazards; and Comply with Federal/NIH biosafety and psychologist career essay, biosecurity regulations (see Section VI.2 ., “Administrative and National Policy Requirements”) Proposed research training should provide special opportunities for job training application for hrm training through the use of unusual talent, resources, populations, or environmental conditions in other countries that are not readily available in the United States (U.S.) or that augment existing U.S. resources. 3. Submission Dates and Times. 3.A. Submission, Review, and career essay, Anticipated Start Dates. Opening Date: March 8, 2010 (Earliest date an application may be submitted to

Council Review Date(s): Not applicable to Individual Fellowships. 3.A.1. Letter of writing up thesis, Intent. A letter of intent is not required for the funding opportunity. 3.B. Submitting an psychologist Application Electronically to the NIH. 3.C.

Application Processing. Applications may be submitted on or after the opening date and must be successfully received by job training application letter, no later than 5:00 p.m. Psychologist Career. local time (of the applicant institution/organization) on the application due date(s). (See Section IV.3.A. for all dates.) If an application is not submitted by the due date(s) and time, the application may be delayed in the review process or not reviewed. All applications must meet the following criteria to be considered “on-time”: All registrations must be complete prior to the submission deadline The application must receive a tracking number and timestamp (or eRA help desk ticket confirming a system issue preventing submission) by 5:00 p.m. local time on the submission deadline date. Any system identified errors/warnings must be corrected and the submission process completed within the “error correction window.” Please visit for great modern detailed information on what to essay do if or eRA system issues threaten your ability to submit on up thesis, time. Submission to is not the last step – applicants must follow their application through to career the eRA Commons to check for errors and warnings and view their assembled application! 3.C.2 Two Day Window to essays Correct eRA Identified Errors/Warnings. IMPORTANT NOTE! NIH has eliminated the error correction window for due dates of January 25, 2011 and beyond. As of psychologist, January 25, all corrections must be complete by the due date for an application to be considered on-time.

See NOT-OD-10-123. Once an application package has been successfully submitted through, NIH provides applicants a two day error correction window to correct any eRA identified errors or warnings before a final assembled application is application, created in the eRA Commons. Psychologist Career. The standard error correction window is two (2) business days, beginning the day after the submission deadline and excluding weekends and standard federal holidays. All errors must be corrected to successfully complete the submission process. Warnings will not prevent the dissertation university birmingham application from completing the submission process. Please note that the following caveats apply: Initial application submission must be “on-time.” The AOR/institutions is expected to career enforce that application changes made within the error correction window are restricted to those necessary to address system-identified errors/warnings. NIH may reject any application that includes additional changes. Proof of “on-time” submission (e.g., timestamp and tracking number) and description of for nursing, all changes made within the psychologist window must be documented in the PHS 398 Cover Letter component of the application. 3.C.3 Viewing an debt Application in the eRA Commons. Once any eRA identified errors have been addressed and career, the assembled application has been created in essays the eRA Commons, the PD/PI and the Authorized Organization Representative/Signing Official (AOR/SO) have two weekdays (Monday – Friday, excluding Federal holidays) to view the assembled application before it automatically moves forward to NIH for further processing.

If everything is acceptable, no further action is necessary. The application will automatically move forward to the Division of career essay, Receipt and Referral in phd the Center for Scientific Review for processing after two weekdays, excluding Federal holidays. Prior to the submission deadline, the AOR/SO can “Reject” the assembled application and submit a changed/corrected application within the psychologist career essay two-day viewing window. This option should be used if it is determined that some part of the application was lost or did not transfer correctly during the submission process, the AOR/SO will have the option to “Reject” the application and submit a Changed/Corrected application. In these cases, please contact the eRA Help Desk to ensure that the essay for nursing school issues are addressed and corrected. Once rejected, applicants should follow the psychologist career essay instructions for correcting errors in Section 2.12 of the SF 424 (RR) application guide, including the requirement for cover letters on late applications. The “Reject” feature should also be used if you determine that warnings are applicable to your application and up thesis, need to be addressed now. Psychologist Career. Remember, warnings do not stop further application processing. If an application submission results in warnings (but no errors), it will automatically move forward after two weekdays if no action is taken.

Some warni ngs may need to be addressed later in the process. If the two-day window falls after the submission deadline, the AOR/SO will have the option to “Reject” the application if, due to an eRA Commons or system issue, the application does not correctly reflect the submitted application package (e.g., some part of the application was lost or didn’t transfer correctly during the submission process). The AOR/SO should first contact the eRA Commons Helpdesk to confirm the system error, document the issue, and determine the up thesis phd best course of action. NIH will not penalize the applicant for career essay an eRA Commons or system issue. If the writing AOR/SO chooses to “Reject” the career essay image after the submission deadline for job training application a reason other than an eRA Commons or system failure, a changed/corrected application still can be submitted, but it will be subject to the NIH late policy guidelines and psychologist career, may not be accepted. On The Application For Hrm. The reason for this delay should be explained in the cover letter attachment. Both the AOR/SO and PD/PI will receive e-mail notifications when the application is rejected or the career application automatically moves forward in the process after two weekdays. Upon receipt, applications will be evaluated for completeness by the Center for Scientific Review, NIH . Incomplete applications will not be reviewed. There will be an up thesis phd acknowledgement of receipt of applications from and the Commons . The submitting AOR/SO receives the acknowledgments. The AOR/SO and essay, the PI receive Commons acknowledgments.

Information related to the assignment of an application to term a Scientific Review Group is also in the Commons. Note: Since email can be unreliable, it is the career responsibility of the applicant to check periodically on their application status in the Commons. The NIH will not accept any application in essay response to this FOA that is essentially the same as one currently pending initial merit review unless the applicant withdraws the pending application. The NIH will not accept any application that is essay, essentially the same as one already reviewed. However, the NIH will accept a resubmission application, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the critique from the previous review. 4. Intergovernmental Review. All NIH awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in debt papers the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Citizenship: Fellowship Applicants must meet the psychologist career essay citizenship/residency requirements as described in the Eligibility section of this announcement (see Section III) at up thesis phd, the time of award.

Concurrent Awards: A Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship may not be held concurrently with another federally sponsored fellowship or similar Federal award that provides a stipend or otherwise duplicates provisions of this award. Tax Liability: Internal Revenue Code Section 117 applies to the tax treatment of psychologist career essay, all scholarships and fellowships. The Tax Reform Act of dissertation binding, 1986, Public Law 99-514, impacts on the tax liability of all individuals supported under the NRSA program. Under that section, non-degree candidates are required to career report as gross income all stipends and any monies paid on great english essays, their behalf for course tuition and fees required for attendance. Degree candidates may exclude from psychologist essay, gross income (for tax purposes) any amount used for tuition and related expenses such as fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for courses of instruction at a qualified educational organization. The IRS and application essay school, Treasury Department released regulations in January 2005 (Revenue Procedure 2005-11) clarifying the student exception to the FICA (Social Security and Medicare) taxes for students employed by a school, college, or university where the student is pursuing a course of study. Our understanding is that these final regulations do not apply to or impact Kirschstein-NRSA programs or awards. An NRSA stipend is provided by the NIH as a subsistence allowance for Kirschstein-NRSA fellows and trainees to help defray living expenses during the research training experience. NRSA recipients are not considered employees of the Federal government or the grantee institution for purposes of the award.

Note that the NIH takes no position on the status of a particular taxpayer, nor does it have the authority to psychologist essay dispense tax advice. The interpretation and implementation of the tax laws are the domain of the IRS. Individuals should consult their local IRS office about the applicability of the tax laws to essay on feudalism their situation and for information on their tax obligations. Future Year Support: Funds for continuation beyond the career essay initial year are determined by the progress described in the continuation application, the timely submission of all required forms, and on the letter for hrm, the availability of funds. Service Payback: As required by the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993, postdoctoral fellows incur a service obligation of 1 month for each month of support during the career essay first 12 months of the Ruth L. Debt Forgiveness. Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support. The 13th and subsequent months of Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA support are acceptable postdoctoral payback service. Thus, individuals who continue under the award for 2 years will have paid off their first year obligation by the end of the psychologist career essay second year. Applicants accepting an award for the first 12 months of a Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support must sign a payback agreement (PHS Form 6031) in dissertation which they agree to engage in psychologist essay health-related research training, research, and/or teaching for 12 months. Those who do not pay back their obligation through continued Ruth L. Papers. Kirschstein-NRSA supported training may satisfy their obligation by serving in a position in psychologist career which health-related research, research training, or teaching are the primary activities. Such individuals must engage in research, research training, or teaching at a rate of 20 or more hours per week averaged over a full work-year.

Payback service may be conducted in an academic, governmental, commercial, or nonacademic environment, in the United States or in a foreign country. Examples of acceptable payback service include research associateships/assistantships, postdoctoral research fellowships, and college or high school science teaching positions. Examples of unacceptable payback service include clinical practice and administrative responsibilities not directly related to scientific research. Payback service positions are arranged by the individual, not by the NIH. In England. The NIH will review and approve the activity at career essay, the end of the year in which it occurs. Service to satisfy any outstanding obligation must be initiated within 2 years after termination of Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA support, and must be performed on a continuous basis. For individuals who fail to fulfill their service obligation, the United States is entitled to recover the total amount of Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA funds paid to the individual for the obligated period plus interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Treasury. Financial payback must be completed within 3 years, beginning on the date the debt term United States becomes entitled to recover such amount. Under certain conditions, the Secretary, DHHS, may extend the career essay period for starting service, permit breaks in service, extend the period of repayment, or otherwise waive the payback obligation when compliance would constitute a substantial hardship against writing up thesis, equity and career, good conscience. Policies regarding the Ruth L. Writing Up Thesis. Kirschstein-NRSA payback obligation are explained in career the Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA Section of the NIH Grants Policy Statement available at

PD/PI Credential (e.g., Agency Login) The NIH requires the PD(s)/PI(s) to fill in forgiveness papers term his/her Commons User ID in the “PROFILE – Project Director/Principal Investigator” section, “Credential” log-in field of the career essay “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component. The applicant organization must include its DUNS number in its Organization Profile in the eRA Commons. This DUNS number must match the DUNS number provided at binding university birmingham, CCR registration with For additional information, see “Frequently Asked Questions – Application Guide, Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” Cover Letter (Section 5.2 of SF424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide) Fellowship Applicants are required to attach a cover letter to psychologist career the PHS Cover Letter component of the application.

The cover letter must contain the same list of referees (including name, departmental affiliation, and institution) that is included in the Other Project Information Component Item 12, Other Attachments. In addition, applicants may request assignment (referral) to a particular NIH Institute or Center, as well as a specific Scientific Review Group. See SF 424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide, Section 5.2, for additional information. PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form (Section 5.3 of SF424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide ) All application instructions outlined in the SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide are to be followed (see:, taking into consideration the following additional instructions (Note that only selected items are emphasized below). See SF 424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide, Section 5.3, for additional information. Research Training Plan. Item 1. Introduction: Required for a resubmission or revision application. Essay. This section is limited to 1 page. Item 2. Specific Aims: The Fellowship Applicant must describe concisely the Specific Aims, b road, long-term objectives and the goal of the proposed research to test a stated hypothesis. The Specific Aims section is required for all Fellowship applications and is limited to 1 page.

Item 3. Career. Research Strategy: This section, including tables, graphs, figures, diagrams, and charts, is limited to essay 6 pages. See Table of Page Limits. This section should address the Significance of the proposed studies, including the career essay background leading to binding university birmingham the present application; and career, the Approach (including preliminary studies, if any) to provide experimental support of the proposed hypothesis. Fellowship Applicants must describe a tailored research training plan, including a description of the research strategy (preferably hypothesis-driven) well-suited to the stage of his/her career development to date. Dissertation Binding University Birmingham. Describe the psychologist career essay skills and techniques that the candidate will learn during the award period, and discuss the relationship of the forgiveness proposed research training to the applicant’s career goals. The applicant’s plan should be coordinated with the sponsor’s plan (see below), and should include substantive detail that adds to the information about time allocations requested. The applicant must describe the background leading to the proposed research, the significance of the research, the research approach (design and methods) for achieving the Specific Aims (see above), the rationale, and expected/alternative outcomes of the proposed studies. Career. It is beneficial to include pertinent preliminary data obtained by debt forgiveness papers term, the applicant in the current or prior laboratory.

If the sponsoring institution is a foreign institution, information must be provided describing how the institution and sponsor offer clear scientific advantages for research training not currently available in the United States. Other Research Training Plan Sections. Item 16. Resource Sharing Plan: NIH considers the sharing of psychologist essay, unique research resources developed through NIH-sponsored research an important means to on feudalism enhance the value and further the advancement of the research. When resources have been developed with NIH funds and the associated research findings published or provided to NIH, it is important that they be made readily available for research purposes to qualified individuals within the scientific community. If the final data/resources are not amenable to career sharing, this must be explained in essay in england the Resource Sharing section of the application (see (a) Data Sharing Plan : Not Applicable. (b) Sharing Model Organisms : Regardless of the amount requested, all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated are expected to psychologist career include a description of a specific plan for sharing and distributing unique model organisms and related resources, or state appropriate reasons why such sharing is restricted or not possible. See Sharing Model Organisms Policy, and NIH Guide NOT-OD-04-042.

(c) Genome-Wide Association Studies ( G WAS ): Regardless of the binding birmingham amount requested, applicants seeking funding for a genome- w ide association study are expected to provide a plan for submission of GWAS data to the NIH-designated GWAS data repository, or provide an appropriate explanation why submission to the repository is not possible. A genome-wide association study is defined as any study of psychologist essay, genetic variation across the entire genome that is designed to identify genetic associations with observable traits (e.g., blood pressure or weight) or the presence or absence of a disease or condition. For further information see Policy for Sharing of Data Obtained in NIH Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies (go to NOT-OD-07-088, and Item 17. Respective Contributions: The Fellowship Applicant and his/her sponsor/mentor should describe how they have collaborated to develop the current research training proposal. This section is limited to debt forgiveness papers term 1 page.

Item 18. Selection of Sponsor and Institution: The Fellowship Applicant should discuss how he/she arrived at selecting the psychologist sponsor(s) and the institution. This section is limited to 1 page. Item 19. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Applications must include a plan to obtain instruction in dissertation the responsible conduct of research. This section should document prior instruction in responsible conduct of research during the applicants current career stage (including the psychologist career essay date of last occurrence) and propose plans to receive instruction in responsible conduct of application essay for nursing school, research. Such plans must address five instructional components, format, subject matter, faculty participation, duration of instruction, and frequency of instruction, as outlined and explained in NOT-OD-10-019. The plan may include career stage-appropriate, individualized instruction or independent scholarly activities that will enhance the applicants understanding of ethical issues related to their specific research activities and psychologist essay, the societal impact of that research. The role of the sponsor/mentor in responsible conduct of research instruction must be described. Applications lacking a plan for great english essays instruction in responsible conduct of research will be considered incomplete and may be delayed in the review process. Essay. The background, rationale and more detail about great instruction in the responsible conduct of research can be found in NOT-OD-10-019.

This section is limited to career 1 page . Item 7. Goals for Fellowship Training and Career: The Fellowship Applicant should provide details of his/her overall career goals for training, and explain how the proposed research will enable the attainment of these goals. This section is limited to papers term 1 page. Item 8. Activities Planned Under This Award: The Fellowship Applicant should provide a detailed description of all planned activities under the proposed research training plan, such as coursework, seminars, scientific conferences, opportunities for interaction with other groups and scientists, and any special or unique training opportunities for the applicant that are available in the training environment. G ive a year-by-year accounting including an career essay estimate the percentage of time to dissertation university be devoted to each activity. This section is limited to psychologist career essay 1 page. Item 9. Letter For Hrm. Other Research Experience: The Fellowship Applicant should provide a summary of his/her research experience to date and discuss how the psychologist career proposed research training plan will add to this experience.

This section is limited to 2 pages. Item 10. Citizenship: Applicants who have applied for and have not yet been granted admission as a permanent resident should check the great modern essays Permanent Resident of U.S. Pending block. A notarized statement documenting legal admission for permanent residence must be submitted prior to the issuance of an award. Individuals admitted to the United States as Permanent Residents will be required to submit notarized evidence of legal admission prior to psychologist career essay the award. Applicants must follow the specific instructions on debt, Appendix materials as described in the SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide (See ). Do not use the Appendix to circumvent the page limitations. An application that does not comply with the psychologist career essay required page limitations may be delayed in the review process.

Other Project Information Component (Section 4.4 of application school, SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide) – Other Attachments (Item 12) Important Note: The following attachments must be included for psychologist essay Fellowship applications. Submit each attachment separately using the application essay for nursing Other Attachments section of the Other Project Information Component. Sponsor and any Co-Sponsor(s) Information (Limited to 6 pages) a. Research Support Available : The sponsor(s) who will directly supervise the applicant’s research, must currently be funded to conduct independent research in the area of the proposed research training (e.g., Principal Investigator on psychologist essay, an R01 or equivalent) b. Sponsor's/Co-Sponsor’s Previous Fellows/Trainees : The sponsor(s) must describe past experience in the guidance of other research trainees and fellows. c. Training Plan, Environment, Research Facilities : The sponsor(s) must describe in detail his/her commitment to and proposed role in guiding the individual applicant during the research training experience. The sponsor(s) should describe the research training plan for the applicant (coordinated with the applicant’s own research training plan). The description should include items such as classes, seminars, and opportunities for interaction with other groups and scientists. Training in debt forgiveness papers career skills, e.g. grant-writing and psychologist career, presentation skills are strongly encouraged. The description should also elaborate on the research environment and available research facilities and equipment, and discuss the relationship of the proposed research training to the applicant's career. The application should describe the quality and appropriateness of the training environment for the applicant’s development including the binding strength of the institutional commitment to fostering the fellows’ training. Describe the essay quality and availability of dissertation binding university, facilities and psychologist essay, resources (e.g. Writing. equipment, laboratory space, computer time, subject populations) for psychologist career the proposed training.

Additionally, the quality of the facilities and writing phd, related resources (e.g., equipment, laboratory space, computer time, available research support, etc.) must be described. d. Number of Fellows/Trainees to be Supervised During the career Fellowship : The sponsor(s) should provide information on other trainees they will be supervising during the period of this fellowship award. e. Applicant's Qualifications and Potential for a Research Career : The sponsor(s) are also expected to provide an assessment of the applicant’s qualifications and potential for debt papers a research career. The application must include statements that address the psychologist essay planned value of the proposed fellowship experience and research training program, and how these relate to the applicant’s needs in preparation for an independent research career. Applicants should provide evidence of their potential for a productive and successful research career based upon the quality of their previous research training and academic record. Letters of Reference (Section 5.4 of SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide) Candidates must follow the Supplemental Instructions in the SF424 RR Individual Fellowship Application Guide for Section 5.4 – Letters of Reference. Please note that the specified Fellowship Reference Form must be used.

This is debt papers term, a separate process from career essay, submitting an application electronically. Reference letters are submitted directly through the eRA Commons at on the job training application for hrm, and career, do not use Letters of reference are an important component of the application for fellowship support. Applicants for this fellowship must arrange to have at least three (but no more than five) letters of reference submitted on their behalf to on the job training application letter the eRA Commons Web site. The letters should be from well-established scientists (referees) addressing the psychologist career qualities of the Fellowship Applicant as well as his/her potential to phd develop research skills needed in preparation for career essay a productive research career in scientific areas related to the mission of one of the participating Institutes.

These letters should be from individuals not directly involved in the application, but who are familiar with the candidate’s qualifications, training, and interests, including advisory committee members (if applicable). Resubmission applications will require new letters of reference. Letters of reference may be submitted any time after the FOA opens and no later than 5 business days after the application due date. The Fellowship Reference Form can be submitted through eRA Commons at prior to application submission through Applications that are missing the required letters of reference may be delayed in the review process or not reviewed. Section V. Application Review Information. Only the review criteria described below will be considered in the review process. 2. Review and Selection Process. Applications that are complete will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by great modern, (an) appropriate scientific review group(s) in accordance with NIH peer review procedures ( using the review criteria stated below. As part of the scientific peer review, all applications will:

Undergo a selection process in psychologist career which only essay in england those applications deemed to have the highest scientific and psychologist career, technical merit, generally the top half of applications under review, will be discussed and assigned an impact/priority score; Receive a written critique; and Receive a second level of review by appropriate staff within the assigned NIH Institute or Center. The mission of the NIH is to for nursing school support science in pursuit of psychologist, knowledge about the biology and behavior of living systems and to apply that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the dissertation birmingham burdens of illness and disability. As part of this mission, applications submitted to the NIH for grants or cooperative agreements to support biomedical and behavioral research are evaluated for scientific and psychologist essay, technical merit through the NIH peer review system. Reviewers will provide an overall impact/priority score to reflect their assessment of the likelihood that the up thesis fellowship will enhance the candidate’s potential for, and commitment to, a productive independent scientific research career in a health-related field, in consideration of the scored and additional review criteria. Scored Review Criteria. Reviewers will consider each of the essay five review criteria below in the determination of scientific and technical merit, and give a separate score for each. An application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to on feudalism have major scientific impact. Are the applicant’s academic record and research experience of psychologist essay, high quality? Does the applicant have the great english potential to develop as an independent and productive researcher in biomedical, behavioral or clinical science?

Sponsors, Collaborators, Consultants. Are the career sponsor(s) research qualifications (including successful competition for research support) and track record of mentoring appropriate for the proposed fellowship? Are there (1) evidence of a match between the research interests of the applicant and the sponsor (including an understanding of the applicant’s research training needs) and (2) a demonstrated ability and writing up thesis phd, commitment of the sponsor to assist in meeting these needs? Are the qualifications of any collaborator(s) and/or consultant(s), including their complementary expertise and previous experience in fostering the career essay training of fellows, appropriate for great essays the proposed research project? Is the proposed research plan of psychologist career essay, high scientific quality, and dissertation binding university birmingham, does it relate to the applicant’s training plan? Is the psychologist essay training plan consistent with the applicant’s stage of research development? Will the essays research training plan provide the applicant with individualized and supervised experiences that will develop research skills needed for his/her independent and productive research career? Does the proposed research training plan have the psychologist career essay potential to provide the school fellow with the requisite individualized and supervised experiences that will develop his/her research skills? Does the proposed research training have the potential to serve as a sound foundation that will lead the fellow to an independent and productive career?

Institutional Environment and Commitment to Training. Are the research facilities, resources (e.g. Psychologist. equipment, laboratory space, computer time, subject populations), and training opportunities adequate and on the job training letter for hrm, appropriate? Is the institutional environment for career the scientific development of the applicant of high quality, and is there appropriate institutional commitment to fostering the fellows’ training as an independent and productive researcher? Additional Review Criteria. As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will consider the following additional items in the determination of scientific and technical merit, but will not give separate scores for application essay these items . Protections for career essay Human Subjects. Great Modern. For research that involves human subjects but does not involve one of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the psychologist career essay committee will evaluate the justification for involvement of human subjects and the proposed protections from research risk relating to their participation according to essay in england the following five review criteria: 1) risk to psychologist subjects, 2) adequacy of protection against risks, 3) potential benefits to the subjects and others, 4) importance of the knowledge to be gained, and 5) data and safety monitoring for clinical trials. For research that involves human subjects and meets the criteria for one or more of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the job training letter committee will evaluate: 1) the justification for psychologist essay the exemption, 2) human subjects involvement and characteristics, and 3) sources of materials. Inclusion of Women, Minorities, and Children. When the proposed project involves clinical research, the committee will evaluate the proposed plans for inclusion of minorities and members of both genders, as well as the on the job training letter inclusion of children.

Vertebrate Animals. The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the career scientific assessment according to the following five points: 1) proposed use of the animals, and writing, species, strains, ages, sex, and psychologist career, numbers to be used; 2) justifications for the use of animals and for the appropriateness of the species and numbers proposed; 3) adequacy of veterinary care; 4) procedures for limiting discomfort, distress, pain and injury to essay school that which is unavoidable in the conduct of scientifically sound research including the use of analgesic, anesthetic, and tranquilizing drugs and/or comfortable restraining devices; and 5) methods of euthanasia and reason for selection if not consistent with the AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia. For additional information, see Biohazards. Essay. Reviewers will assess whether materials or procedures proposed are potentially hazardous to research personnel and/or the job training for hrm environment, and if needed, determine whether adequate protection is proposed. Resubmission Applications.

When reviewing a Resubmission application (formerly called an amended application), the committee will evaluate the psychologist career application as now presented, taking into consideration the binding university birmingham responses to comments from the previous scientific review group and changes made to the project. Renewal Applications. When reviewing a Renewal application (formerly called a competing continuation application), the committee will consider the progress made in career essay the last funding period. Additional Review Considerations. As applicable for forgiveness term the project proposed, reviewers will address each of the following items, but will not give scores for these items and should not consider them in providing an overall impact/priority score. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Reviewers will evaluate plans for instruction in responsible conduct of career essay, research as well as the phd past record of instruction in career responsible conduct of research, where applicable. Reviewers will specifically address the five Instructional Components (Format, Subject Matter, Faculty Participation, Duration of on the for hrm, Instruction, and Frequency of Instruction) as detailed in NOT-OD-10-019. The review of this consideration will be guided by the principles set forth in NOT-OD-10-019. Plans and past record will be rated as ACCEPTABLE or UNACCEPTABLE. Applications with unacceptable plans will not be funded until the applicant provides an acceptable, revised plan. Select Agents Research.

Reviewers will assess the career information provided in this section of the application, including; 1) the binding university birmingham Select Agent(s) to career be used in the proposed research, 2) the registration status of all entities where Select Agent(s) will be used, 3) the procedures that will be used to monitor possession use and transfer of Select Agent(s), and great modern english essays, 4) plans for appropriate biosafety, biocontainment, and security of the Select Agent(s). Resource Sharing Plans. Reviewers will comment on whether the following Resource Sharing Plans, or the rationale for not sharing the following types of resources, are reasonable: 1) Data Sharing Plan (; 2) Sharing Model Organisms (; and 3) Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) ( Budget and Period Support. Reviewers will consider whether the budget and the requested period of psychologist career essay, support are fully justified and essay on feudalism in england, reasonable in relation to the proposed research training. Applications submitted in response to this funding opportunity will compete for available funds with all other recommended applications. The following will be considered in making funding decisions:

Scientific and technical merit of the career proposed project as determined by scientific peer review. Availability of funds. Relevance of the proposed project to program priorities. 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates. 1. Award Notices. If the application is under consideration for job training application letter for hrm funding, NIH will request just-in-time information from the psychologist career essay applicant. For details, applicants may refer to the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and Conditions of modern english, NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General. Activation: No funds may be disbursed until the fellow has started training under the award, and an Activation Notice (PHS 416-5) has been submitted to the NIH. A fellow has up to six months from the issue date on the award notice to activate the award. Under unusual circumstances, an NIH Institute may grant an extension of the activation period upon receipt of a specific request from the fellow, countersigned by the sponsor and an institutional official.

Fellowships must be administered in psychologist career accordance with the current NRSA section of the Grants Policy Statement (, and any terms and conditions specified on the Notice of Grant Award. Leave Policies: In general, fellows may receive stipends during the dissertation binding normal periods of psychologist career essay, vacation and holidays observed by individuals in comparable training positions at the sponsoring institution. For the purpose of dissertation birmingham, these awards, however, the period between the spring and psychologist career, fall semesters is considered to be an active time of research and research training and is not considered to essay on feudalism in england be a vacation or holiday. Psychologist. Fellows may receive stipends for for nursing up to 15 calendar days of psychologist career, sick leave per year. Sick leave may be used for medical conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth.

Fellows may also receive stipends for up to 60 calendar days of parental leave per year for the adoption or the birth of a child when those in comparable training positions at the grantee institution have access to the same paid leave for this purpose and the use of modern english essays, parental leave is approved by psychologist, the program director (see NOT-OD-08-064). A period of dissertation, terminal leave is career, not permitted, and writing, payment may not be made from fellowship funds for leave not taken. Psychologist Career Essay. Fellows requiring periods of time away from application essay, their research training experience longer than specified here must seek approval from the NIH awarding component for an unpaid leave of absence. Part-Time Training: While Kirschstein-NRSA awardees are required to pursue research training full time, normally defined as 40 hours per week, or as specified by the sponsoring institution in psychologist career accordance with its own policies, under pressing personal circumstances, a fellow may submit a written request to the awarding component to permit less than full-time training. Such requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis.

They must be approved by the awarding NIH Institute or Center in advance for each budget period. The nature of the circumstances requiring the part-time training might include medical conditions, disability, or pressing personal or family situations such as child or elder care. Permission for part-time training will not be approved to accommodate other sources of funding, job opportunities, clinical practice, clinical training, or for letter for hrm other responsibilities associated with the fellow's position at the institution. In each case, the fellow must submit a written request countersigned by the sponsor and an appropriate institutional business official that includes documentation supporting the need for part-time training. Career Essay. The written request also must include an on the application for hrm estimate of the expected duration of the period of part-time training, an assurance that the fellow intends to return to full-time training when that becomes possible, and an assurance that the psychologist trainee intends to complete the proposed research training program. In no case will it be permissible for the fellow to be engaged in Kirschstein-NRSA supported research training for less than 50 percent effort. Individuals who must reduce their commitment to forgiveness papers term less than 50 percent effort must take a leave-of-absence from psychologist, Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship support. The fellowship notice of essay on feudalism in england, award will be reissued and the stipend will be pro-rated during the psychologist essay period of any approved part-time training. Certification Requirements: Individuals admitted to the United States as Permanent Residents must submit notarized evidence of job training letter for hrm, legal admission prior to the award.

Service Payback: A Payback Agreement Form (PHS 6031) must accompany the Activation Notice for psychologist any award that occurs during the individual's initial 12 months of Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support. When support ends, the fellow must submit a Termination Notice (PHS 416-7) to dissertation university the NIH. If the fellow has a payback obligation, he or she must notify the NIH of any change in address and submit Annual Payback Activities Certification Forms (PHS 6031-1) until the payback service obligation is satisfied. Forms may be found on the NIH Website at Inventions: Fellowships made primarily for educational purposes are exempted from the PHS invention requirements. Fellowship awards will not contain any provision giving PHS rights to inventions made by psychologist career, the fellow. Publication and Sharing of Research Results: NIH supports the practical application and sharing of essay on feudalism, outcomes of funded research. Therefore, fellows should make the results and accomplishments of their Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship activities available to the research community and to psychologist career the public at large. The grantee organization should assist fellows in these activities, including the birmingham potential commercialization of career, inventions. No restrictions should be placed on the publication of results in a timely manner.

Fellows are encouraged to submit reports of their findings for publication to the journals of their choice. Responsibility for direction of the project should not be ascribed to the NIH. Application. However, NIH support must be acknowledged by a footnote in language similar to the following: “This investigation was supported by the National Institutes of Health under Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (number).” In addition, federal funding must be acknowledged as provided in essay “Public Policy Requirements and Objectives-Availability of Information-Acknowledgment of Federal Funding”. Copyrights: Except as otherwise provided in the terms and term, conditions of the psychologist essay award, the writing up thesis recipient is free to arrange for copyright without approval when publications, data, or other copyrightable works are developed in the course of work under a PHS grant-supported project or activity. Any such copyrighted or copyrightable works shall be subject to a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license to the Government to reproduce, publish, or otherwise use them, and to authorize others to psychologist essay do so for Federal Government purposes. Payback Agreement: A Payback Agreement Form (PHS 6031) must accompany the Activation Notice for any award that occurs during the individual’s initial 12 months of Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support. Application for Continued Support.

When multiple years are involved, awardees will be required to job training application letter for hrm submit the career Kirschstein National Research Service Award Individual Fellowship Progress Report for Continuation Support (PHS 416-9) annually as required in the NIH Grants Policy Statement. The report is due two months before the beginning date of the next budget period and must include information describing the current year's progress as well as the research and training plans for the coming year. Note that the on feudalism instructions request a listing of all courses and publications completed during the past year. Termination Notice: When support ends, the fellow must submit a Termination Notice (PHS 416-7) to the NIH within 30 days following termination. Section VII. Psychologist. Agency Contacts.

We encourage your inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and welcome the great essays opportunity to career answer questions from potential applicants. Debt Forgiveness Papers. Inquiries may fall into three areas: scientific/research (program), peer review, and financial or grants management issues: 1. Scientific/Research Contact(s): Applicants should refer to Table of Institute and Center Contacts to career essay obtain contact information. 2. Job Training For Hrm. Peer Review Contact(s): 3. Financial/Grants Management Contact(s): Applicants should refer to Table of Institute and essay, Center Contacts to obtain contact information. Section VIII. Other Information.

Required Federal Citations. Use of Animals in Research: Recipients of papers term, PHS support for activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ( as mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (, and the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations ( as applicable. Human Subjects Protection: Federal regulations (45 CFR 46) require that applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated with reference to the risks to the subjects, the adequacy of psychologist career essay, protection against these risks, the potential benefits of the research to the subjects and others, and the importance of the knowledge gained or to be gained ( Data and Safety Monitoring Plan: Data and safety monitoring is required for all types of clinical trials, including physiologic toxicity and dose-finding studies (Phase I); efficacy studies (Phase II); efficacy, effectiveness and comparative trials (Phase III). Monitoring should be commensurate with risk. The establishment of data and writing up thesis, safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) is required for multi-site clinical trials involving interventions that entail potential risks to the participants (“NIH Policy for career essay Data and Safety Monitoring,” NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts , Sharing Research Data:

Investigators submitting an NIH application seeking $500,000 or more in on the job training letter for hrm direct costs in any single year are expected to include a plan for psychologist data sharing or state why this is not possible ( Investigators should seek guidance from their institutions, on issues related to on feudalism in england institutional policies and local institutional review board (IRB) rules, as well as local, State and career, Federal laws and dissertation, regulations, including the Privacy Rule. Policy for Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS): NIH is interested in advancing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify common genetic factors that influence health and disease through a centralized GWAS data repository. For the purposes of this policy, a genome-wide association study is defined as any study of genetic variation across the entire human genome that is designed to identify genetic associations with observable traits (such as blood pressure or weight), or the essay presence or absence of dissertation, a disease or condition. Essay. All applications, regardless of the amount requested, proposing a genome-wide association study are expected to provide a plan for submission of up thesis phd, GWAS data to the NIH-designated GWAS data repository, or provide an appropriate explanation why submission to the repository is psychologist, not possible.

Data repository management (submission and access) is governed by the Policy for Sharing of Data Obtained in NIH Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies, NIH Guide NOT-OD-07-088. For additional information, see Sharing of Model Organisms: NIH is essay on feudalism, committed to support efforts that encourage sharing of important research resources including the sharing of model organisms for psychologist career biomedical research (see At the same time the essay school NIH recognizes the rights of grantees and contractors to elect and psychologist essay, retain title to great english essays subject inventions developed with Federal funding pursuant to the Bayh-Dole Act (see the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Beginning October 1, 2004, all investigators submitting an NIH application or contract proposal are expected to include in the application/proposal a description of a specific plan for sharing and distributing unique model organism research resources generated using NIH funding or state why such sharing is restricted or not possible.

This will permit other researchers to benefit from the resources developed with public funding. Career. The inclusion of a model organism sharing plan is not subject to a cost threshold in any year and is expected to on feudalism be included in all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated. Access to psychologist essay Research Data through the binding university Freedom of Information Act: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to psychologist career provide access to research data through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances. Data that are: (1) first produced in a project that is supported in whole or in debt term part with Federal funds; and (2) cited publicly and officially by a Federal agency in support of an action that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed through FOIA. It is important for applicants to understand the basic scope of this amendment.

NIH has provided guidance at psychologist career essay, Applicants may wish to place data collected under this funding opportunity in a public archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the distribution for writing up thesis an indefinite period of career, time. If so, the application should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include information about this in the budget justification section of the application. Forgiveness Papers. In addition, applicants should think about how to psychologist career essay structure informed consent statements and other human subjects procedures given the potential for wider use of data collected under this award. Inclusion of Women And Minorities in Clinical Research: It is the debt forgiveness term policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a clear and compelling justification is provided indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. Essay. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing clinical research should read the papers term NIH Guidelines for psychologist essay Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in debt forgiveness papers Clinical Research” (; a complete copy of the updated Guidelines is available at The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the SF424 (RR) application; and updated roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community. The policy continues to require for all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress in conducting analyses, as appropriate, by psychologist essay, sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences. Inclusion of Children as Participants in Clinical Research: The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) must be included in all clinical research, conducted or supported by modern english essays, the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.

Required Education on the Protection of Human Subject Participants: NIH policy requires education on the protection of essay, human subject participants for university birmingham all investigators submitting NIH applications for research involving human subjects and individuals designated as key personnel. The policy is available at career, Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC): Criteria for Federal funding of writing, research on psychologist career, hESCs can be found at and at

Only research using hESC lines that are registered in the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal funding ( It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide in the project description and elsewhere in the application as appropriate, the official NIH identifier(s) for the hESC line(s) to debt be used in the proposed research. NIH Public Access Policy Requirement: In accordance with the psychologist career NIH Public Access Policy, investigators funded by application essay school, the NIH must submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central (see, an career essay electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication . The NIH Public Access Policy is available at ( ). On The Letter For Hrm. For more information, see the Public Access webpage at Standards for psychologist career Privacy of forgiveness papers term, Individually Identifiable Health Information: The Department of career, Health and Human Services (HHS) issued final modification to the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, the Privacy Rule, on August 14, 2002.

The Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of on the letter for hrm, 1996 that governs the protection of individually identifiable health information, and is administered and psychologist career, enforced by the HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR). URLs in NIH Grant Applications or Appendices: All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. Essay For Nursing School. For publications listed in the appendix and/or Progress report, Internet addresses (URLs) or PubMed Central (PMC) submission identification numbers must be used for publicly accessible on-line journal articles. Publicly accessible on-line journal articles or PMC articles/manuscripts accepted for publication that are directly relevant to the project may be included only as URLs or PMC submission identification numbers accompanying the full reference in either the Bibliography References Cited section, the Progress Report Publication List section, or the Biographical Sketch section of the NIH grant application. A URL or PMC submission identification number citation may be repeated in each of these sections as appropriate. There is no limit to the number of URLs or PMC submission identification numbers that can be cited.

Healthy People 2010: The Public Health Service (PHS) is career, committed to writing up thesis phd achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of Healthy People 2010, a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas. This FOA is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2010 at This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance at and is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372. Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 487 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 288) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 66. All awards are subject to psychologist career the terms and conditions, cost principles, and application essay for nursing, other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement. NIH encourages applications for educational loan repayment from qualified health professionals who have made a commitment to psychologist career essay pursue a research career involving clinical, pediatric, contraception, infertility, and health disparities related areas.

The LRP is an important component of NIH's efforts to debt recruit and psychologist, retain the next generation of researchers by providing the means for developing a research career unfettered by the burden of student loan debt. Note that an NIH grant is not required for eligibility and concurrent career award and LRP applications are encouraged. The periods of career award and LRP award may overlap providing the LRP recipient with the on feudalism required commitment of time and effort, as LRP awardees must commit at least 50% of their time (at least 20 hours per week based on a 40 hour week) for two years to the research. For further information, please see: and Human Services (HHS)

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The Student's Practical Guide: Writing Term Papers for Anthropology (and Related Subjects) (originally written in 1981, with various updates since then. ) rendered into psychologist career essay html with occasional comments by. (whose own two cents on this topic is summarized here) Dictionaries and encyclopedias. Indexes and essay for nursing, abstracts. Yearbooks and psychologist essay, review literature. You have not even started the paper -- somehow you have not managed to find the time for on the job training it. Other things always seemed more important or more fun. But you can't put it off any longer. You have to start right now.

You have to get it done as quickly and efficiently as possible -- and psychologist career, obviously you don't want to suffer any more than is on feudalism necessary. Psychologist Career Essay. Also, you don't want to take any chances with your GPA, so you want to debt forgiveness papers term, write a good paper. But the whole project seems confusing, dreary, and a little overwhelming. It doesn't have to be that bad. That is psychologist career essay what this Guide is all about -- making the writing of anthropology term papers easier. There are ways to save time and effort. There are procedures and strategies that enable you to binding university birmingham, negotiate the psychologist career essay necessary -but often tedious- process of debt papers finding the psychologist material you need in the library quickly and effectively. School. After finding the material you need, it is important to know the best way of organizing it in your paper. Learning these techniques and career essay, skills frees you to concentrate on the quality of the essay paper--or maybe on the beach. This Guide is no substitute for psychologist career your own effort and commitment. (Obviously we are not about to recommend that you wait six weeks to begin your paper.) Certainly there is for nursing no way to guarantee success or scholarly ecstasy; writing a term paper may never be as much fun as mountain climbing, or reading Russian novels, or whatever your idea of fun is.

And there is no final or definitive answer to the question of what a professor wants in a paper. But this Guide will inform you of some of the career basic features of an anthropology paper which you can be sure your professor will want you to know. Application For Nursing. And it shows you how to make your paper a more polished and expert product. You may already have taken a writing course. The skills learned there will be useful in writing papers for anthropology. The ability to organize ideas effectively and express them clearly is an important survival skill in the university environment. Career Essay. Mastering this skill early in essay on feudalism in england your academic career can greatly increase your enjoyment of university life 2 . Psychologist Career. However, you probably did not learn the writing up thesis phd citation and bibliographic format used by anthropologists. One of the goals of the Guide is to introduce you to that format. Career Essay. A word of modern english essays warning: you should set aside any ideas you have about using footnotes for documentation. Psychologist. (Documentation refers to methods of acknowledging the use of someone else's work.) You may also find that the writing style required for research papers is not the same as the style you learned in your writing classes. The style for research papers emphasizes the unambiguous, easily understood presentation of information and ideas, rather than the expressive use of evocative, complex, and richly ambiguous imagery and symbolism. School. In other words, research papers require an essay expository, not a literary, style.

THE STYLE AND ORGANIZATION OF TERM PAPERS: A QUICK REVIEW OF THE ESSENTIALS. Then what is a term paper? Like a report, a library research paper presents data and ideas (which are, however, typically drawn from several sources). Unlike a report, a research paper presents your analysis and interpretation of the data and up thesis, ideas found in a survey of the anthropological literature relevant to the topic of your paper. Analysis is the process of organizing and summarizing the psychologist essay data and ideas in order to answer a question.

Interpretation refers to a discussion of the meaning and implications of your answers for the issues, ideas, and problems that your paper addresses. Eight Magical and on feudalism in england, Wise Rules for Writing Term Papers. Kolb, Harold H. Psychologist Career. 1980 A Writer's Guide: The Essential Points . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Strunk, William, and E.B. White 1979 The Elements of Style . 3rd ed. For Hrm. New York: Macmillan. Psychologist Career Essay. Turabian, Kate 1976 Student's Guide for Writing College Papers . 3rd ed. Forgiveness Term. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. You should be able to career, find them all at the University Bookstore. Magical and Practical Rule Number 1: A paper should be organized around a clear problem. The problem is formulated in the course of exploratory reading in the anthropological literature.

First, you should choose an appropriate topic and check it for feasibility by doing some preliminary research in the library and by consulting with your TA or professor. This exploratory reading helps you formulate a problem (or thesis) regarding your topic. The problem you select then becomes the focus of your paper; it directs and limits your efforts. A good problem immediately raises certain questions and implies significant issues. You use your library know-how to find the great modern data that answer these questions and to find the ideas of the psychologist scholars who have discussed these issues.

You should use only the for nursing school data needed to answer your questions. Otherwise your paper will lack coherence and psychologist essay, unity, and you will have done more work than you needed to. And, worst of all, you may not get your paper in on time. The professor may then never get a chance to read it, because he has flown off to some delectable Pacific island, and on feudalism in england, you may be stuck with an Incomplete. So subordinate your reading and note taking to a clear, well defined problem (or controlling idea), formulated in your exploratory reading. Magical and Logical Rule Number 2: After you have selected a problem and become acquainted with some of the literature on it, make a well thought out and fairly detailed outline . As you reading progresses, ask yourself what ideas and information are necessary for understanding your problem, and in what order they have to be presented, in psychologist career order to have a logical and coherent presentation.

Start out with a crude outline. Then revise and elaborate it as needed. A good outline is dissertation university indispensable; it helps you figure out what information you need as you carry out psychologist career essay your research and in on feudalism what order that information should be presented. A few superstars can juggle complex ideas and quantities of data in their heads, but for ordinary mortals the use of an career essay outline makes sense. (It is debt forgiveness papers wise to figure that you, like Socrates, are an ordinary mortal.) Magical and Effective Rule Number 3: A term paper should be conceived of as a whole. It should have thematic unity and an integrated structure. If you stick to your problem and your outline, you should have no trouble writing a unified paper; unity just means sticking to the central idea of your paper and your plan for discussing it.

Structure refers to the organization of the parts of your paper. A paper consists of three main parts: an opening or introduction, the body, and a conclusion. But these parts must be tied together, and subordinated to the main purpose of the paper, which is to tell someone about your analysis and interpretation of the problem you have formulated and researched. You want to make the paper as easy to understand as possible. So first you tell them what you're going to say. The introduction clarifies the nature of your topic; it states your research problem and your strategy for understanding this problem. Your opening ideally puts the reader in the mood for reading the paper; it serves to career essay, spark some interest.

But mainly it prepares the reader intellectually for your main effort--the body of the up thesis phd paper. Essay. The best introductions are often written after the body of the english paper is already drafted, so that they can lead to it as effectively as possible. Remember: one way to bomb on a paper is to promise one thing and deliver something else. The body of the paper carries out your strategy or plan for analyzing and essay, interpreting your material. This part of the paper goes into details: it lays out all the necessary information and on the job training application letter for hrm, ideas in a logical order (that is, in the sequence in psychologist essay which the reader needs to know them in order to understand you). The body is up thesis organized in terms of answers to questions, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; it supports generalizations with data, or derives generalizations from data. . and then you tell them what you've said.

The conclusion wraps things up. Essay. It reminds the reader of the nature and significance of the problem you set out at the beginning, and sums up the meaning and essay in england, implications of your analysis. It tells the reader what has actually been discovered and what it means. The conclusion concisely restates your intentions and plans, and psychologist essay, tells the modern english essays reader succinctly what happened when you carried out that plan. In other words, it summarizes and synthesizes the progression of your understanding from the career opening statement of your problem through the forgiveness term detailed development of the problem in the body of the paper. Magical and psychologist, Essential Rule Number 4: Write with your readers in application for nursing school mind. Be clear and explicit so that they can follow your argument. Be concise and yet complete. You are writing something that will be read and evaluated by someone.

Keep in mind that all your readers can know of your thoughts is what you put down on paper. Telepathy is psychologist rare even among anthropologists. So be explicit. Don't refer or allude to ideas or information not contained in your argument, unless you can reasonable expect the readers to be familiar with that material. Make sure that the readers have all the information they need in order to follow you from point A to point B in on feudalism in england your discussion. If your roommate doesn't understand how you argued your way from point A to point B, your TA or professor probably won't either. And choose your words with care. You don't want to essay, obscure your reasoning by on the application for hrm, putting it into the wrong words. A brilliant logical argument can be lost for want of precise words 4 . Your outline will help you make the logical connections in psychologist your paper explicit.

You may even want to use some subtitles in your paper (one or two per page) which serve up the points made on that page. These subtitles will correspond to your outline--or at least they will if you stick to it. Using subtitles can alert you when you start to stray from your plan. Subtitles also have the advantage of reminding the weary reader (who has just read 137 term papers before starting yours and has 79 yet to go) where he has got to job training application for hrm, in your argument. (They also make fuzzy stuff look organized, keeping the opposition off guard.) However, if you allude extensively to material not included in essay your paper, or ideas not explained in job training application your paper, or do not choose your words with some care, then even subtitles won't save you. You want to be clear, explicit and complete, but you don't want to bore your reader (or not very much anyway--not more than is necessary). So don't belabor the obvious. Put things in psychologist your paper because they're important in terms of your argument, not because you feel you should explain everything--twice. On The Job Training Application. Be as concise as you can, while still being clear, explicit and complete. So, it is psychologist essay important to be clear and complete, but on birmingham the other hand, it is important not to be boring or obvious. That sounds a little like look before you leap but he who hesitates is lost!

And yet these points are not as contradictory as they may seem. It's a question of balance, which, in psychologist essay writing term papers, as in learning to ride a bicycle (and practically everything else), is only learned through practice--by doing it until you don't fall down. Too much explanation and qualification of your argument can distract the reader from the essential points you are trying to make. Too little explanation and application for nursing school, elaboration makes a paper vague; the reader doesn't have enough information to judge the essential points of psychologist essay your argument, or see how they are connected--or even, sometimes, see what they are. When in debt forgiveness term doubt, it is psychologist career essay better to application essay school, bore than to be vague. If you're boring, the professor may fall asleep, but at least you'll get credit for career the work you did. If you are vague, on the other hand, you leave the reader with no way of knowing what you meant. In this second case, there is nothing to base a grade on, except the creeping suspicion that you haven't said anything. Vagueness is term generally pretty boring anyway. It is career essay better to work on essay being both clear and interesting; with practice and commitment, it is possible to be both. Magical and Reasonable Rule Number 5: The paper should reflect the theme of the course.

You should be sensitive to the point of view the professor is trying to present and to the scope of the psychologist career course. A good paper should reflect the theme of the course in some way, even if you do not agree with the professor's approach. 5 Consult your TA or professor before you invest a lot of time and energy investigating a topic that might not be appropriate. For example, when you are writing for a class that focuses on some aspect of cultural symbolism, and you find yourself discussing astrology, King Tut, and holistic hang gliding, then you're stretching the boundaries of the course. Binding. You will probably find that you are stretching the boundaries of your GPA too. More realistically, if your professor has been talking for psychologist essay weeks about political conflict, then a paper in job training application for hrm which you marvel at the harmony and smooth integration of culture--and by implication deny the reality or significance of psychologist career essay conflict--will probably raise some eyebrows, but not your grade. Application School. But a paper about the problems of political leadership in Arab villages in territory occupied by psychologist career essay, Israel, or about debt term lineage feuding in classical China, would more appropriately reflect the theme of the course. Magical and Indispensable Rule Number 6: Revise, Rewrite and Proofread. You should always plan on doing some revision and rewriting. But how much? And how do you know when it is necessary?

Here again, if a friend (or enemy) has trouble understanding your paper or any part of it, you need to do something about it. You need to rewrite the foggy and fuzzy sections. And even if your paper is more or less comprehensible, revision and rewriting will nearly always improve it. Basically, a sense of when and what to revise, what to throw out, and what to rewrite is developed through the practice of writing and through receiving feedback on your papers. With your research problem, outline and the limitations of career readers firmly in modern english essays mind, go through your outline with a certain ruthlessness. Cut out essay any jumbles of writing up thesis phd excess or imprecise words. Don't be afraid to throw away sentences and whole passages which don't do the job of communicating your ideas. Clean up the grammar.

Rewrite as necessary. Now you can type or print your final draft. And then you should proofread it. You don't want to leave any little but distracting errors or typos uncorrected. (A typo can change the comment Kroeber's theory is not considered adequate into Kroeber's theory is now considered adequate. But any type can eb distracting.) 6 Most word processing programs will check the spelling, and psychologist career, even simple grammar, automatically if you ask, so use these features. However, always read the paper yourself before you print the final copy--the Kroeber typo cited above is neither misspelled nor grammatically incorrect, but it is a mistake that will be noted. Magical and application letter, Risk Avoidance Rule Number 7: If you use a computer, save your files often and make multiple backup copies. Nothing is so debilitating as following the psychologist career essay first six rules and then losing the whole work to a cyber-space demon.

Saying you lost your work to the computer, or that it will not print out, now runs well ahead of dogs eating homework in the excuse category. It may be true, but it is very difficult to prove and, if the writing up thesis phd TA or professor is on a tight schedule to turn in essay final grades, you may not get the benefit of the doubt. Save your files regularly, especially after making extensive revisions, and when you are finished be sure to copy your files onto a separate disk that can be stored in binding university birmingham a drawer and moved to another machine if disaster strikes. Magical and Unwritten Rule Number 8: Make a rule to fit in psychologist career this space. This is a freebie. Experience is the best teacher, so develop your own. Sound like a lot of work? You're right. But in grade points per hour the magical rules are the best term paper bargain going.

THE CITATION FORMAT OF ANTHROPOLOGY PAPERS. I think this format is easier to use than other formats. Once you familiar with it, I think you'll agree. Anthropologists document the use of other people's work--the sources of ideas or data used in a paper--by placing citations in the text of the paper. Documentation , for our purposes, means providing bibliographic references to sources. A citation is a bibliographic reference to a specific source--a book, an article, or other source of information. In-text citation simply means placing citations in the text of the paper, instead of in application essay for nursing school footnotes. In-text citation documents the use of sources of data and essay, ideas, just as reference (bibliographic) footnotes do, but in-text citations are used instead of such footnotes in anthropology. Phd. You do not use reference footnotes or endnotes when you write a paper using the career essay in-text citation format. You were probably taught to use reference footnotes to document your use of sources, and the world is full of people who say footnote when they mean citation.

Hang in there; things will become clearer as we go along. Dissertation. For now, do the best you can to forget about using footnotes as a method of career documentation. 7. The important thing to understand, then, is that in-text citation replaces reference footnotes . Here's what in-text citation looks like: The evidence for this hypothesis is suspect (Burns 1969:32). Tonkinson (1978:27) notes that the Aborigines of the Western Desert. As you can see, the up thesis in-text citation supplies, in parentheses, the name of the psychologist essay author, the year of publication, and the page(s) on which the material cited can be found [NOTE ADDED BY JM: when citing journal articles in the natural sciences, page numbers are usually omitted unless it is a direct quotation--most articles are short and if the reader wants to on feudalism in england, find the item, s/he can read the article.

Not true for a 300 page book. ]. Note the punctuation: this is exactly how it should appear in all your anthropology papers. Also note that when the name of the author is used as part of the text, as in the second example, only the career essay year of publication and great modern, page numbers are placed within the parentheses. Now, if I'm your inscrutable TA and I'm interested in finding out more about something I read in your paper (because it is just so bizarre or wonderful that I have to know more about it), then I turn from psychologist, your citation to school, your reference list at the end of your paper. This list of psychologist career all the works cited in your paper provides information needed to locate sources in the bookstore or library. The citations and for nursing, the reference list make it possible for the reader to track down material that may be useful. As your TA, I can find interesting stuff simply by tracing your citation back to your source.

In that source are more citations, leading me back to your source's sources (squared as it were). These in turn have citations and essay, reference lists leading to on the job training application letter, their sources (sources cubed?). Your paper becomes a link in a citation chain when you cite from publications connected in this way. Essay. (TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.) The citation format used in anthropology is less work than the footnote format because you only have to type out the complete bibliographic information for a source once--in the reference list. (Complete bibliographic information includes titles, publisher, place of publication, and writing up thesis phd, so on. We'll get to that.) In a paper using reference footnotes, you have to type that information twice--once in the footnote itself, and then again in the reference list. This seems like extra work to me. I would rather not be typing footnotes when I could be out hang-gliding or otherwise exercising my hormones. I think in-text citations are quicker and easier than reference footnotes, and they do exactly the same thing in terms of documenting the use of a source and providing access to that source. Since anthropology term papers do not use reference footnotes, you never have any reason to career, use Latin abbreviations such as ibid or op cit.

In the footnote format, you use these expressions when you refer more than once to a single source. But when you use in-text citation, you give the same information every time that you refer to a source: the essay in england author's last name, year of publication of the work cited, and the page(s) on which the idea or data you use appears. What if you refer to two different books or articles by psychologist, the same author? How do you let the reader know that two different publications are being cited? You simply use the year of publication to distinguish them. Essays. They will be listed chronologically under the psychologist career essay author's name in the reference list. What if they were published the same year? Then you can add lower case letters after the publication date.

(Stone 1979a) (Stone 1979b) What happens if two authors have the same last names? In that case, you use the initials of their first names, or their full names if they have the same first names, so that it is clear in your text which author you mean. So, if you cite both Karl Marx and on feudalism in england, Groucho Marx, you would use the initials of the first names in the citations, even though the years of publication are different. (K. Marx 1853:334) (G. Marx 1949:24) If two sources have the same first and last names, then you may have to use middle initials, if available. The general rule is always to try to give enough information so that the reader will know exactly what individual or publication in the reference list you are referring to. If there are two authors for a publication you wish to psychologist career, cite, you cite them this way: (Stone Burns 1956)

If there are more than two authors, then you can probably get away with using the name of the senior author--the one whose name appears first in an article, or under whose name a book is cataloged--followed by et al. which means and others. Smith, Burns, Garcia, and Sullivan 1980:87 can be cited as (Smith et al. 1980:87). Smith is the senior author; do not use the alphabetical order of authors' names in deciding what names to use in dissertation binding university birmingham a citation. (Note: American Anthropologist , a major journal, now prohibits the use of et al. in the text, because it is undemocratic. I recommend the use of et al. --not because I'm undemocratic, but because it seems to me that a citation with three or more names interferes with the ease of reading the text, and I do not believe many instructors would object to this use of et al. in term papers. In your reference list, you must use the names of all the authors.

Unless you are undemocratic.) An Exception to the Ban on Footnote: Multiple Citations. There is an exception to essay, the rule against using reference footnotes for citing your sources. Writing Phd. If you have many citations for one sentence (in other words, many sources for one piece of psychologist information), then you may use a footnote to job training application letter, avoid cluttering the text and disrupting the reader's attention to your reasoning. Beagles are fond of bagels (Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97). This means that. Beagles are fond of bagels. 1 This means that. 1. see Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97. Psychologist Career. Using the reference footnote makes this easier to read without losing the sense of the text.

The idea is to avoid doing anything to distract the reader's attention from what you have to say. Unless an idea is very complex or profound --like Beagle bagelphilia- or the data very technical or surprising, you rarely need to use many citations for one particular chunk of information. A single citation will generally do. Sometimes you may wish to use several citations in order to direct the reader to a particular literature or to important examples of something. A footnote is appropriate in such cases. For example, for the statement Beagles are fond of debt forgiveness papers term bagels, you might use this footnote:

1. Psychologist Career. The best references on Beagles and. bagels are Collins 1967, Crenshaw 1934, and Morton 1978 1979. Footnotes should go at the bottom (foot) of the page. Writing Phd. Some publishers put them at the end of the book. They claim this saves typesetting money (although with computerized typesetting that is no longer true). The real reason is that they hate readers. In any event, term paper footnotes should go at essay, the bottom of the page. Writing Phd. It not only psychologist career, keeps the professor from cursing your future posterity as he fumbles his way to the back in search of a note, it also improves the chances that he will actually pay attention to them. (Nothing is more infuriating, by the way, than to great english essays, make one's way to the back of the book in search of psychologist footnote 73 from chapter fourteen only to modern english essays, find that it says op cit in reference to essay, something last discussed six chapters earlier.)

Cite corporate authors (organizations or groups) by their corporate names. (National Anthropological Institute 1989) A very long corporate name may be abbreviated. The National Institute of Mental Health can be cited in the text as NIMH. Letter. However, the full corporate name must be used in the reference list. Psychologist Career. And you must be sure that you always provide enough information that a reader can find the source in the reference list without problems. If an individual can be identified as the author, the person rather than the organization should be cited. Occasionally, you will run across a work that has neither a personal nor corporate author. Up Thesis Phd. In that case you can use a few identifying words from the title of the source, which are placed in the author position in the entry in the reference list. There are as yet few employment opportunities in the field of Martian anthropology (Martian Anthropology 1986:569).

This citation corresponds to the following reference list entry: Martian Anthropology: An Overview of career essay a Non-field. 1986 Encyclopedia of the Inner Planets. Debt Papers. Abridged. Psychologist Essay. Space City L-5:L-5 Publishing Matrix. Other people's exact words must be placed within quotation marks, or set off from the up thesis text by career, indentation and single spacing. A citation must be placed near the on the job training application letter for hrm beginning or at the end of the career quotation, so that it is essay on feudalism in england clear who is being quoted. Psychologist Career. You could acknowledge a quotation from Clifford Geertz as follows: Culture is the debt forgiveness papers term fabric of psychologist meaning in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the writing actually existing network of social relations (Geertz 1957:533). Here's another way to cite this quotation:

In an article critical of psychologist career essay functional analysis, Geertz (1957:533) distinguishes between culture and social structure: Culture is the fabric of meanings in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations. Note that no citation is needed at the end of the up thesis phd quote. Finally you might choose to incorporate Geertz's works into your text in the following manner: According to Geertz, culture is the psychologist fabric of meaning by which people interpret their experience and guide their action (1957:533). Note: when you put somebody's words inside quotation marks, be sure to quote exactly--spelling, grammatical errors--everything must be just as it is in the original. Paraphrase or Summary. Even when you put other people's ideas or information into essay school your own words, you must cite the career source of the idea and date. For example, suppose that for a paper on dissertation socialization or cultural transmission I want to use T.R. Psychologist Career Essay. Williams' idea that children take an active part in their own socialization into society. Williams calls this the application generative function of socialization. He defines this as.

comprising all of the ways children reflect upon, think about, and sort out the content of psychologist career culture, in order to develop for themselves a cognitive map of adult culture (Williams 1972:224). I don't want to quote him, though, because I know using too many quotations is a cheap trick. It's my paper, after all, so I paraphrase him as follows: Williams (1972:224) notes that children are active agents in their own socialization. Binding. They do not merely absorb the psychologist essay norms and debt, values of adult behavior in a passive manner. Rather, they think about essay their experience of cultural behavior, and job training application for hrm, develop their own theories about their position and roles in the system of social interactions that surround them. Data and Specialized Knowledge. All specialized knowledge--anything that cannot be considered common knowledge in the field in career which you are writing--must be documented.

Data from a source must be cited. Naraun society is divided into three status classes. The highest rank (temonibe) consists of writing up thesis phd descendants from the eldest daughter of the woman who founded the clan (Alkire 1972:44). Data from an ethnography on a group is often specialized knowledge --anthropologists are specialists on the people they study. How do you know if something is common knowledge? There are fuzzy areas, of course. Generally, though, you can rely on psychologist common sense. You don't have to document the fact that the Plains Indians hunted buffalo on horseback in the nineteenth century. But if you describe the life of the Sioux before they got horses or moved onto the Great Plains, or describe a fight the Pawnee had with the Sioux while on a buffalo hunt in 1858, then you need to provide a citation referring the reader to school, the source of your information. Common knowledge means common in psychologist career the field in which you are writing. For Nursing School. (That anthropologists are mostly geniuses is common knowledge--among anthropologists.

Others may disagree--but they don't know the psychologist career field.) Most anthropologists know what clans, lineages, cross cousin marriage, and classificatory kinship are, but only specialists can be expected to know the difference between Aluridja and Kariera type kinship systems, and so if you write a paper on forgiveness term how a particular group of Australian Aborigines combine features of both, a reference citation is psychologist career essay called for, such as: A pretty good rule of thumb is that if you knew it before you started your research, you probably don't need to provide a citation, unless you read about it recently. But if you learned it in the course of your research you'd better cite it. 8 When in doubt, go ahead and forgiveness papers, cite. A citation must identify quotations. This can be done in several ways. Short quotations can be incorporated in a paragraph by using quotation marks and a citation. If you have more than a couple of lines, you can show that you are quoting by indenting and using single spacing. Here is an example of a longer quotation in career essay a sample text: Language requires and reinforces shared understandings. Papers. There has to be some level of agreement concerning the psychologist career essay meanings and use of words and sentences in order for communication to be possible.

So it is reasonable to assume that language in essay school some sense standardizes the understandings of essay individuals. However, Sapir, for one, notes in this context that although language acts as a socializing and up thesis, uniformizing force, it is, rather paradoxically, at the same time the most potent single factor for psychologist career the growth of individuality (1933:27). Remember, using citations is just like so many other things; it takes some practice. So don't worry if it doesn't feel right at first. You'll get the hang of it, and soon you will be doing it automatically. Now what about paraphrases? A paraphrase is a rewording of someone's ideas or information.

Suppose I want to use some information I find in great Tools for Thought by C.H. Waddington, for a paper describing the impact of the psychologist career essay information explosion on anthropological research. In a section of Waddington's book entitled Complexity of Information in application for nursing school the Modern World, he discusses the number of scientific journals published as an index of complexity. Here is the passage I'm interested in. The first two journals wholly devoted to science-- The Philosophical Transactions of the psychologist Royal Society of London and the French Journale des Savants --were both started in forgiveness papers term 1665. A number more were started at regular intervals during the next century.

The process really got under way in earnest around 1760; since then the number of new journals established has doubled every fifteen years. By now well over 100,000 scientific journals have been founded. Not all have persisted, and nobody knows quite how many journals are being published at career, the present time. As long ago as 1938, Bernal estimated that they were some 33,000 current scientific publications. Modern Essays. Another estimate in the late 1960's put the number at 50,000, containing about 1 million separate scientific papers per psychologist career, year.

One attempt to handle this mass of material has been the foundation of secondary journals, whose function it is to summarize and abstract the papers published in the primary journals. The first of these appeared as long ago as 1714 in Germany. By the time there were enough of modern essays them to form a representative sample, they also started to multiply, at the same exponential rate as the primary journals, doubling in numbers every fifteen years, and reaching a total of 1,900 by the mid 1960's. By this time there had been developed a tertiary level of periodical publications, giving information about the abstracting journals (Waddington 1977:32- 33). I want to use some of psychologist career these facts in great english essays a paper on how this flood of information affects anthropological research. Career. First I make a point and then I paraphrase Waddington in support of that point. Then I go on to cite another source. The library is a sophisticated information retrieval system. It is designed to debt papers, give us access to the information we need.

But we have to learn how to use it strategically, not haphazardly. This is especially true in anthropology, where the literatures used are both extensive and diverse. The general need for sophisticated library research strategies becomes apparent when we consider the career essay volume of information that confronts us. Waddington reports that the first scientific journals were established in 1665. Since 1760 over 100,000 journals have been established; it was estimated in the 1960's that as many as half of forgiveness that number were still being published. Psychologist Career Essay. These 50,000 surviving journals publishsomething on the order of one million papers a year.

Efforts to manage this flood of information include the use of secondary journals to condense and make accessible the contents of the primary journals. By the 1960's there were at least 1900 of these secondary journals (Waddington 1977:32-33). The situation in dissertation anthropology is the career same. In 1875- 76, the library of the Peabody Museum, perhaps the first specialized anthropological library in the United States, had less than 1000 publications in its collection; by 1975 it had 130,000 (Currier 1976:16). The third edition of Murdoch's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, published in great modern english 1960, contained 17,3000 entries for books and articles; the fourth edition, published in 1976, contains an additional 28,000 entries for career books and articles published between 1959 and 1972 (Currier 1976:27). Note how the citations identify the source of the information.

A citation is dissertation not needed for every sentence; a series of sentences (or passages) may only require a single citation, as in career essay the paraphrase of Waddington above, if it is clear that the information contained in the entire passage is from a single source (and from only a few pages of the on the application letter source). If you pull together information from different places in a book or long article (as I did from the article by Currier), then you need to career, use a citation within the paraphrase to indicate the different pages in the source where the material you used can be found. Transitions from one source to essay for nursing school, another obviously require you to position a citation in such a way that the reader can see that you have switched from one source to another. The crucial thing is that it must always be clear what ideas came from where. If it is not clear, then it is wrong. When discussing a single book at psychologist, length, you do not have to acknowledge the binding birmingham general concepts, concerns, or themes in it each time you mention one.

But it must be clear to the readers that you are in fact discussing an psychologist idea or theme from that particular book. You must, of course, cite the essay on feudalism pages where more specific data or concepts are found, when you use them, so that the reader can find them. For example, you don't have to career essay, cite page numbers every time you state or imply that Frederik Barth, in his book Political Leadership among Swat Pathans , is interested in political leadership and authority, because that is the application letter grand theme of the book. It runs all through it. Therefore, you don't have to cite specific pages when you say something non-specific about Barth's book. Barth shares this concern about the problem of political leadership. Psychologist. His study of the Swat Pathans (1959) is a good early example of an approach to in england, politics developed within social anthropology.

Once you have clearly established that you are discussing Barth's 1959 study of the Swat Pathans, you can drop the (1959) --as long as the reader knows you are referring to psychologist, Barth's general theme or conceptuali- zation. But as soon as you go on to discuss Barth's specific formulations, then you have to provide the reader with page numbers. Barth states that among the Swat Pathans, Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders (Barth 1959:72). These corporate groups are person-centered. The leader is the application essay school focus of the psychologist group; the group only exists in terms of and by virtue of his authority. The group includes anyone the leader can get to join him in collective action in response to threat, crisis, or conflict. On The Application Letter For Hrm. Note that since the quotation and paraphrase come from the same page, one citation is adequate to essay, identity both. Compare the paraphrase with the application letter for hrm original: Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders. Any such group consists of career essay all the persons whom a leader is able to mobilize in the event of conflict. Its limits are undefined except in relation to the leader, and its solidarity derives from the latter's authority (Barth 1959:72).

In theory, if you are not indebted to someone for an idea or date, you do not have to cite him or her, even if you come across their statement of that concept or information. However, in practice, it is usually better to go ahead and cite such a source, if the material is pertinent. If nothing else, you strengthen your argument by indicating that reputable scholars have made the same point. Besides, citing a source entitles you to list it in your bibliography and shows the professor how hard you worked. You don't want the professor to application for nursing, think you have done a slap dash job of research because you have failed to use a significant source.

Also, you don't want to risk an unfair suspicion of plagiarism--more on psychologist that in the next section. Plagiarism is the use of someone's work without acknowledgment, as if it were your own. If in your term paper you were to use someone's dates, ideas, or words without documenting that use with a citation, then you would be guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is cheating. Debt. The penalties for plagiarism include an F on essay a paper, failing the class, and probation or suspension from the university. To avoid plagiarism, you have to writing phd, know how to document your use of psychologist career essay other people's work. This is what we went over in the last section; in-text citation is the system of documentation used in anthropology. Documentation is more than a good thing to know--it is binding university birmingham your responsibility to know how to career essay, document your use of in england sources, and to make sure that you do so in every paper that you write, whether you use in-text citation for career an anthropology paper, or reference footnotes for a literature paper. It is pretty easy to tell when a student has plagiarized.

Professors and TAs are not dummies (or anyway not total dummies, or anyway not always total dummies). 9 They've had lots of experience in reading student papers, and essay in england, they know what to expect. It is not always easy to tell whether a student meant to cheat (although some cases are so outrageous that there can be no doubt) but most professors and career, TAs can tell whether he did cheat. Read this section and the section on the use of citations with care, so that you never unintentionally fail to application essay for nursing, document the source of material you use in your papers. It is not all that hard to avoid plagiarism once you know what is involved. I'll advise you on how to avoid unintentional plagiarism.

The main thing is to know how to document any use of career essay sources correctly. A quotation, the use of someone's words, not only requires a citation, but must be set off from your writing by writing phd, quotation marks or by indentation and single spacing. This is true of phrases as well as of whole sen- tences and passages. Consider the following example from psychologist career, African Religions of Brazil by Robert Bastide. The original is: All religion is a tradition --a dual tradition of stereotyped actions and rites and dissertation university birmingham, of mental images and myths. It has often been claimed that the two elements are inseparable, myths being a definition or justification of the ceremonial action (Bastide 1978:240). And here is the essay same passage plagiarized almost word for word in student paper. (The paper is hypothetical. For Nursing School. If a student did this, he would find his graduation getting pretty hypothetical too.) This religion is a dual tradition, like any other; a tradition both of stereotyped actions and rites and of psychological images and myths.

The two elements are inseparable, with myth being the definition of psychologist essay ceremonial action. Great English. Only a few, very minor, changes have been made; essentially it consists of Bastide's words. Here is an career example of how to use this passage properly: According to Bastide, all religion is a tradition and in england, as such consists of stereotyped actions and career, rites and mental images and myths. He notes that it is possible to view ritual and myth as a unitary phenomenon in which myth is a statement of the purpose or meaning of ritual (Bastide 1978:240). It is clear that Bastide is being quoted, so a single citation at the end of the passage does the trick. Remember: it is still plagiarism even if you put someone's thoughts or data into your own words (in a paraphrase or summary) and do not acknowledge that use with a citation. On Feudalism In England. Plagiarism occurs whenever a citation is required, but is not given, whether for quotes or paraphrases, ideas or data. Besides confusion about the purposes and methods of documentation, the major cause of unconscious plagiarism is probably lousy note taking. Whenever you take a note you should record whether it is a quote, a paraphrase, or summary.

You should also immediately take down all the bibliographic information you will need, should you later decide to incorporate that material into psychologist career your paper. If you don't do this, and you need to use that material, you'll have to haul yourself kicking and screaming back to the library to get this information. That will look pretty silly. (You would be wise if you also wrote down the call numbers of library materials you use, so that you can find that stuff again without having to look it up in the computer card catalog.) If you photocopy pages from something, you should immediately write down complete bibliographic information on the copy or, better yet, photocopy the title page. Otherwise in a couple of weeks you may want to university, use it, but have only a vague notion of where it came from. And so you won't be able to use it, until you go back to the library and get the information you need to document your use of it. 10. The Bibliographic Format of Anthropology Papers: THE REFERENCE LIST. A reference list is not a real bibliography in the sense of seeking either to cover a subject comprehensively, or to identify sources which share certain special qualities (as in a select bibliography).

A reference list is less ambitious; it is an inventory of sources actually used rather than of all sources or selected sources. (Some people refer to reference lists as bibliographies, and others don't. Personally, I don't think it matters what you call it as long as you know how to construct one.) A reference list gives the necessary bibliographic information in a particular format. Career Essay. The bibliographic format presented here is derived, for up thesis the most part, from the journal American Anthropologist and from the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . The format may be somewhat different in other journals, and psychologist essay, still more different in other disciplines. The reference list follows the text of the paper.

It can be headed at application for nursing school, the top of the page References Cited or Works Cited. The entries in the list are organized alphabetically by the last names of the career authors. Here is what an entry for a book looks like: Geertz, Clifford. 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures . New York: Basic Books. and for application for hrm a journal article: Keesing, Roger 1979 Linguistic Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge: Some Doubts and essay, Speculations. American Anthropologist 81 :14- 36.

The above examples give the modern general form for entering sources in psychologist career essay a reference list. You should use the same layout and papers term, punctuation. Start typing from the regular margin. Notice what bibliographic information is required: 1. Last name of author, then first name (and middle initial). [NOTE ADDED BY JM: In the natural sciences (that goes for BioAnthro), first names are not generally used, just initials. There are about a gazillion nuances and styles; in general, use the psychologist style that is used by most of the sources you are citing--i.e., pay attention to your sources and do like they do .] 2. Date of publication. 3. Title. 4. Information about the publisher or periodical, or other information about the source of the publication. a. If a book, then the city of publication and name of the publisher. b. If an article, then the name of the periodical, volume number, and pages on which the article appears. On The Job Training Application Letter For Hrm. (Note: if the journal or periodical does not number pages consecutively for the entire year, you also need to give the issue number.

See point 7 below.) The above form will work for most entries. But there are a variety of little details and career essay, special problems that you will encounter from time to time. Let's consider these one by one. 1. Book, single author. Include complete subtitles.

Tonkinson, Robert. 1978 The Mardujara Aborigines: Living the Dream in Australia's Desert . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 2. Book or article, more than one author. Only the name of the first author is reversed. Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. University. 1966 The Social Construction of Reality . New York: Doubleday. Harrison, G.A., J.S.Weiner, J.M.Tanner and N.A. Barnicot. 1977 Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Ecology . 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Remember that it is (usually) acceptable, in a reference such as the one above, to use the principal author's name followed by et al in your in-text citation, but that you must give all of the authors' names in psychologist career essay the reference list entry.

3. Papers. More than one publication by same author. In this case, you list the works chronologically (by date of publication). The earliest work is cited first. Bailey, F.G. 1963 Politics and psychologist career essay, Social Change . Berkeley: University of for nursing school California Press. 1969 Stratagems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics . Oxford: Blackwell. If more than one work was published in psychologist the same year, list them alphabetically and use lower case letters to distinguish them, as in the in-text citation (1963a, 1963b). 4. City and State of Publication.

If a book was published in some little known city or town--Tuba City, Arizona, or Weed, California, for example--then you should note the state, as well as the city, of publication. Rosenberg, G. and D. Anspach 1973 Working Class Kinship . Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. Place of publication is application essay for nursing not required for periodicals, except to avoid confusion, as when journals with the same of similar names are published in different places. 5. Editor or compiler. Hunt, Robert, ed. 1967 Personalities and Cultures: Readings in Psychological Anthropology . Essay. Austin: University of Texas Press. 6. Chapter or article in book. Williams, T.R. Application Essay For Nursing. 1972 The Socialization Process: A Theoretical Perspective. Psychologist. In Primate Socialization . On The Job Training Application Letter. Frank E. Poirer, ed. Pp.

207-260. New York: Random House. Notice that in is underlined (or italicized in print). This is to make sure that no one thinks it is part of the title of the book. Also, note that the name of an editor, when not in the author position, is not inverted. 7. Journal Articles. If the periodical has continuous pagination, you omit the issue numbers. Singer, M. 1980 Signs of the psychologist career essay Self: An Exploration in Semiotic Anthropology.

American Anthropologist 82 : 485-507. Nowadays, most scholarly journals do not start off each issue with new pagination; rather, pagination is continuous throughout a volume, so providing an issue number would be superfluous. However, some periodicals start each issue with page one, in which case you must give the issue number in debt term your entry. Whenever you are not sure whether pagination is continuous, provide the psychologist career issue number, in application essay for nursing school parentheses, after the volume number. Washburn, Sherwood L. 1978 The Evolution of Man. Scientific American 239(3) :194-211.

If you read Helen Sebba's translation of career a book by Roger Bastide, the complete entry would be as follows: Bastide, Roger 1978 The African Religions of Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations . Helen Sebba, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Phd. (Original: Les Religions Afro-Brasiliennes: Contributions a une Sociologie des Interpenetrations de Civilisations, Paris, 1960). All of the above information is not always available, in psychologist essay which case you have to make do with what is papers term available. There are also variations in what is psychologist career essay done.

For example, sometimes the language of the original is given: Translated from the forgiveness Nahuatl by. . 9. Corporate Author. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 1978 Cognition as a Residual Category in career Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology 7 :51-69. 10. Reprints of Older Works.

You should give the original publication date in brackets, if available, as well as the job training application letter for hrm date of the reprint. Smith, Arthur H. Career Essay. 1971 [1899] Village Life in China . Writing Up Thesis. Boston: Little, Brown. You probably should cite this in the text by both dates, at psychologist essay, least on its first use, so the reader will be aware of the application letter for hrm historical context of the source. Psychologist. Your page citation should be to the edition you used. Blom, Frans and modern, Oliver LaFarge 1926 Tribes and Temples . Career. New Orleans: Tulane University Press. Collier, Jane F. 1973 Law and Social Change in Zinacantan . Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1974 Women in Politics. Debt Forgiveness Papers Term. In Women, Culture and Society . Psychologist Career. M. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere, eds. Dissertation Binding University Birmingham. Pp. 89-96.

Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1977 Political Leadership and Legal Change in Zincantan. Psychologist Career. Law and english essays, Society Review 11 :131-163. Emerson, Richard 1962 Power-dependence Relations. American Sociological Review 27(1) :31-40. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1975 La Voie Des Masgues . 2 vol.

Geneva: Editions Albert Skira. Strickmann, Michel 1974 Taoism, history of. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britanica. Vol. 17. Pp. 1044- 1050. Part of what makes a library confusing is the fact that it has to organize tons of different kinds of stuff-- books, magazines and journals, government publications--from all over the world, about everything from the anthropology of art to zymurgy, in a way that can be used efficiently by career essay, everyone from writing up thesis phd, anthropology students to zymurgists. Anthropology uses an psychologist career extremely wide range of library materials. If you go into the library blind, you won't find most of them.

To use the library effectively for anthropological research, you have to know the functional relationship between critical reference works (that is, various indexes and bibliographies) and the anthropological literature. And, of debt papers term course, you have to know how to use each individual reference work, when you find it. Using a reference work, such as the Social Sciences Citation Index , is not simple. But with practice it becomes automatic. Librarians are not uniquely gifted superstars; they have simply taken the psychologist career time to learn how the library works. If you take a little time, you can become fluent at using the for nursing library too (not as good as the librarians, but pretty good). 11 This Guide will get you started, and will, we hope, be something you can refer to as needed, whenever you do research in the University Library, for anthropology or allied disciplines.

The Library: How to Get Started. So you walk into psychologist the library. What do you do first? Encyclopedias are good places to begin your exploratory reading, if you have some idea for a topic. (But term papers are never based solely on job training application encyclopedia articles.) I suggest you go either to the Encyclopedia Britannica , 15th ed., or to career essay, the International Encyclopedia of the dissertation binding university Social Sciences , or to a specialized area or subject encyclopedia, if one is psychologist essay available for your topic. (See the next section for descriptions of individual reference works, including the ones mentioned here, plus directions on how to find them in the reference areas.) Encyclopedias and handbooks are the best way to get a quick introduction to a topic--to see if it really interests you and to check it for feasibility. And you can use their reference lists to identify good sources. When you find a source in essays a reference work you then have to go to the computer card catalog (a now archaic reference to the time when you actually consulted the paper cards directly) and find its call number, so that you can locate it in the stacks. The stacks are all those shelves of books that really make up a library. The reference area is a kind of map of the stacks. Using the reference works shelved in the reference area enables you to find that dingy brown book on essay the far end of the bottom shelf on modern english essays the east side of the sixth floor which is just what you need for your paper. (It beats starting with the first book on the first floor and flipping through every book until you find the one you need.) After you have a call number, you can go find the book you want. When you find it--or the place where it would be if it were on the shelf--take time to look at the books next to it on the shelf.

Since they are in the same call number sequence, they may be relevant to your topic. This kind of browsing (by call number sequence) is often an effective way of finding useful sources. The same type of browsing is also possible to do electronically, but then you can't actually flip through the books themselves. Once you lay your hands on one good source, you can use its citations and reference list to identify additional sources. These sources will lead you on to their sources, and so on--this is the essay method of pursuing a citation chain, which was mentioned earlier, in papers term the section on the use of citations. (Incidentally, many sources will use old fashioned reference footnotes instead of career in-text citations, and papers term, may omit a reference list on the theory that the psychologist career essay information was already given in footnotes. That is a pain, and we are inclined to think dark thoughts about their ancestry, but we're not so prejudiced that we'd pass up a good source on that account.) Since each source can cite only earlier sources, a citation chain normally leads from recent to earlier and earlier publications. But it is also possible to pursue it in the opposite direction, i.e., from earlier to great modern english, later citations.

This is done by means of a remarkable set of psychologist career essay reference tools called the Social Sciences Citation Index . We'll get to that. Reference Works: Encyclopedias. Encyclopedias attempt to summarize the knowledge in an area. Here are two of the best encyclopedias for anthropological research. (Also see the section on modern english more specialized handbooks.) The New Encyclopedia Britannica (1990) 15th ed. 30 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. There are three parts to this encyclopedia. The first is essay a one volume outline of knowledge entitled the Propaedia. It is essay also a guide to the encyclopedia. Then there is a ten volume Micropaedia which briefly summarizes knowledge in a subject.

It is intended to psychologist career essay, function as a ready reference, and as an index to the last nineteen volumes. It doesn't give the kind of in depth information needed even for exploratory reading on a topic, but it may give you ideas for a topic and leads to follow. Up Thesis Phd. The final nineteen volumes are the Macropaedia. They give what the editors (pretentiously) call knowledge in psychologist depth. Often the articles in the Macropaedia are written by scholars famous in their fields. (The articles are initialed, and the initials are identified at the end of the Propaedia volume if you get curious.) These selections are the ones you are most likely to find useful. The reference lists are good. Note: one of the distinctive features of the modern 15th edition is its excellent cross indexing. The Micropaedia is a splendid index to the Macropaedia. It is always best to start there. The Propaedia also indexes the Macropaidia, though less obviously. Psychologist Career Essay. Don't skip them.

International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (17 vols.) edited by David Sills, New York: Macmillan, 1968-79. Volume 17 is the modern english index volume. USE IT! It is much better than relying on the broad subject headings used in the encyclopedia proper. The index volume lists specific topics--going to psychologist, it first saves you time. Page 84 of the index gives a list of the articles on anthropology.

This encyclopedia has signed articles by heavyweights in their field. For example, Melford Spiro wrote the article on dissertation binding university birmingham Culture and Personality. The reference lists are excellent. Reference Works: Indexes and essay, Bibliographies. Social Sciences Index. As you turn from the world of general encyclopaedias, this is probably the index you will want to turn to first. It is selective about the material it covers, and so the sources you find by using it have a pretty good chance of being high quality. It is easy to use.

For example, suppose you are interested in great Brazil. You look in the index for 1980 under the subject heading Brazil and find that it says, among other things: Brazil see also. You then turn to the anthropological research heading. There, under Brazil, a journal article is listed. The title, author, journal name, and volume and page numbers are given: Final report on the meeting of essay anthropologists and Indian experts. R. Cordoso de Oliveira. Cur Anthrop 20 :451-4 Je' '79. Cur Anthrop is the writing up thesis phd abbreviation used in this index for the journal Current Anthropology. (You can tell because there is a list of abbreviations used in psychologist career the front of the index.) The volumes in which the article appears is 20, on pages 451-454, in June 1979.

The article was written by R. Essay On Feudalism In England. Cordoso de Oliveira. To get your hands on the article itself, look up the journal name in the serials record . This is a list of the journals and magazines in the library, and gives their call numbers. The serials record is found both in print and on computer at various locations--one is near the psychologist reference desk. Birmingham. The serials list also tells you what volumes the library has. Volumes that are bound are shelved in the stacks. Unbound periodicals may be located in the Current Periodicals room. Some unbound periodicals are also shelved in the stacks.

Armed with the call number for the journal and the volume and psychologist, page number from the Social Science Index reference that you found, you may now march confidently into the stacks, walk right to the the shelf, and pull out the great english essays volume you need, flip it open, and psychologist career essay, voil?: the desired article. (Remember, that if that article is useful, the sources it lists in its reference bibliography may also be useful.) Essay and General Literature Index. This index identifies the contents of books (for example, essays in collections). The computerized card catalog does not do this. In the index for 1970-74, under the heading Brazil, you find nothing interesting. You turn to the anthropology heading. Again nothing seems useful. Writing Phd. But it refers you (see also) to various other headings, including ethnology.

Under ethnology, you strike out. But it says see also kinship. Turning to the kinship heading, you find an article on kinship in psychologist career Brazil. This is how it is listed in the index: Kinship Levi-Strauss, C. Social Structures of Central and Eastern Brazil. In Gross, D.R., ed. Peoples and dissertation binding, Cultures of Native South America . p. 263-74. You could not have found this particular article in the card catalog, but you can look up the book edited by Gross. You would jot down the above information, and turn to the back of the index, where there is a section which lists alphabetically all of the books which have had their contents indexed. Under Gross, D.R., you find the essay following information. Gross, Daniel Russel (ed) Peoples and Cultures of essay on feudalism Native South America: An Anthropological Reader . Ed. with introductions.

Published by the American Museum of Natural History Press 1973. You use this information to look up the book. The big advantage of psychologist career this index is that it indexes the contents of books. The fact that an article or essay has been selected for inclusion in a collection means that there is a fair chance that the job training for hrm article is of high quality. Catalog of the Library of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.

This is psychologist career a reproduction in book form, of the card catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. It is perhaps the best retrospective bibliography for anthropological research. 12 It also indexes the contents of debt selected journals and psychologist, books. It is debt divided into an author catalog and a subject catalog. The catalog is periodically updated with supplements which index works acquired since the career essay main catalog was published. 1. Subject Catalog The subject catalog of the Peabody Museum Library is organized by topical divisions (ethnology, technology), by human groups (political, linguistic, and social) and by geographical areas. The human groups headings, such as Basques and Berbers, have subject sub- headings, such as Basque-Sociology-Economics.

The broader topical divisions may be broken down into subtopics (Anthropology-Theory). Publications under a particular geographical heading, like those for human groups, have subject sub-headings. So you can look first for the geographical area that interests you, and then you look for the subject headings that interest you. Keep in mind that some of the subject headings in the catalog may be out of date, since they were set up years ago. Suppose I am interested in Bali, an island in Indonesia. Under Bali in english the fourth supplement to the catalog are reproduction of career thirty-one cards in writing up thesis phd the catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. Subject headings follow the geographical headings; there are cards that say Bali Island--Ethnology, meaning that the publication listed on that card concerns the eth- nology of career essay Bali. Here are some of the subject headings that appear under the geographic heading of Bali:

Sociology--Acculturation and Culture Change. The Peabody catalog indexes the contents of many books and journals. For example, on a card headed Bali Island-Sociology-Authority and Leadership, we find a chapter in a book listed: Hobart, Mark Orators and Patrons: Two Types of Political Leaders in Balinese Village Society. ( In : Political Language and Oratory in Traditional Society . London: New York: Academic Press. c.1975, p. Application Essay For Nursing. 65-92.) Notice that this entry does not give you the name of the editor of the volume in career essay which this work appears; it does give you page numbers. We also find a journal article on marriage (under the subject heading Sociology-Marriage). Boon, James A. The Balinese Marriage Predicament: individual, strategical, cultural.

( In : American Ethnologist . 1976 v.3 no.2 p.191-214; diagrs.) Both of the above appear in the fourth supplement , which updates the catalog. The fourth supplement was published in 1979, and catalogs 100,000 entries not cataloged in the third supplement. You should use both the up thesis main catalog and each of the supplements in your search of the literature. Otherwise you can miss valuable sources.

For example, if I had not looked in the main catalog under Bali, I might have missed the following older, but classic, work: Bateson, Gregory Balinese Character: a photographic analysis ; by Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. New York, 1942. Career Essay. xvi, 227 p. Application Letter. 100 illus. (Special Publications of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. II.) Remember, this catalog is the best place to career essay, locate many older works; it is an excellent retrospective bibliography. 2. Author Catalog. Suppose you already know that a particular author has done major work on your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of letter your topic. Psychologist Essay. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of the up thesis work of Alfred Kroeber on California Indians.

Under Kroeber, Alfred Louis, in the Peabody author catalog are listed 126 entries on works by Kroeber, covering the course of his career from 1900 through the 1950's. There are numerous articles on California Indians. After the career essay publications by application for nursing school, Kroeber are listed various works about Kroeber, which may also be useful. The first supplement to the author catalog had another thirty-two entries by or about Kroeber--many of these are reprints of works also listed in the main catalog. These reprints may be more accessible to you than the original publications, so it may pay off to check the supplements even on older authors. Social Sciences Citation Index. The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is the versatile and sophisticated index we mentioned before. It consists of three different kinds of indexes, which are designed to psychologist career, be used together: the dissertation birmingham Permuterm Subject Index , the Citation Index , and psychologist, the Source Index . This is one of the major accomplishments of modern library science, and it's well worth the time it takes to up thesis, get acquainted with it. 1. Subject and Source Index. If you have a topic, and want to find articles about psychologist career it, you can use the SCCI Permuterm Subject Index . Permuterm means that the words in titles have been used to index articles; an article will be listed under various combinations of the words in the title, which are called terms and co-terms. For example, suppose that you have a topic in the area of psychological anthropology.

You know that culture and personality studies are an important part of this field. So it makes sense to pick culture as you Primary Term and personality as a Co-Term. In the up thesis Permuterm Subject Index for 1980, under the primary term culture and the co-term personality the name Shweder is listed. Now you turn to the Source Index for 1980 and look up Shweder. Psychologist Essay. This turns out to essay on feudalism in england, be a bonus: not one, but three articles by Shweder are listed. (There was even a little symbol in the Subject Index which indicated that.) The SSCI Source Index gives you the following information for psychologist career the first of Shweder's articles: Shweder, R.A. Rethinking Culture and essay for nursing, Personality Theory 2: Critical Examination of psychologist career essay two more Classical Postulates. This is basically the same bibliographic information you find in a reference list: author, title, journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and essay in england, date of publication.

Only the order is career different from the format given earlier. The only writing phd, mystery here is the 77R. That indicates the number of sources that Shweder cites. Seventy-seven sources is a lot. When you find a journal article with more that thirty or forty works listed in its reference list, you can be pretty sure that it is a major review of a subject. The article by psychologist essay, Shweder is probably a review of writing up thesis phd some aspect of culture and personality theory, and so may be quite useful--for its reference list, if nothing else. One beautiful thing about the SSCI is that in essay the Source Index it lists the reference sources of every article indexed. So you not only have a reference to Shweder's article in Ethos , you have a list of all the sources he cited, even before you go look at his article.

His reference list is given right below the entry for his article. Let's look at one of Shweder's sources, as listed in the Source Index. Bateson G. 67 AM Behavioral Sci 10 29. Bateson is the author. 67 means 1967. The name of the journal in which the article appears is American Behavioral Scientist. (The Index has a listing of all abbreviations used.) 10 refers to the volume number of the journal, 29 is the page number. The Citation Index of the SSCI enables you to find out which authors are being cited by others. The authors who cite Shweder's articles on culture and personality, for modern essays example, are probably writing about the same or related issues. The person who cites Shweder may provide follow-up work or an evaluation of Shweder's work. Essay. So by using the Citation Index , you can listen in to the dialogues being carried on by various groups of scholars who are interested in the stuff that interests you. When you find a good article on your topic, you can find other sources by phd, finding out who has cited that article (or author) since its publication.

The Citation Index lets you pursue citation chains in a new direction. Before, you could only psychologist career, trace sources cited in an article you had your hands on, which meant you could only find works published before the date of publication of the article you have. Great Modern Essays. But with the Citation Index you can find sources published after that date, because this index tells you who has cited the article you have since its publication. So not only can you find a lot of potentially useful sources fast by using the SCCI, you can also keep up with the most recent developments and psychologist essay, ideas in papers term a field, and check to see how a work was later evaluated, a theory revised, or a conceptual framework expanded, modified or given up as worthless. This kind of library research is likely to pay off a lot faster than paging through journals one by one. Here's how you go about using the SSCI Citation Index : First you look up the author in the index. Essay. The titles of the author's articles are listed, by year of publication, under his or her name. For Nursing School. Under the titles are listed the names of the authors who cite that article, along with the bibliographic information you will need to look up these new sources. Book Review Digest.

Suppose you want to know whether or not African Political Systems , edited by career essay, Meyer Fortes and E.E. Evans-Pritchard is worth using in your paper. You can use the Book Review Digest to find out. First, look up Fortes in the author/title index which is published in separate volumes (Author-Title Index 1905-74). Application For Hrm. This provides the title and psychologist career, year of great essays publication of all books included in the Digest . You will find that African Political Systems was published in 1941. Turning to the volume for career 1941, you will find digests (that is, summaries) from several reviews of this book which appeared in various periodicals, including American Anthropologist and American Political Science Review . If a book is not reviewed by on the job training for hrm, a major journal, it may not be worth using. Psychologist. There are a lot of pretty funny people writing pretty funny books, and it is embarrassing to writing up thesis, base part of a term paper on a book which seems to be scholarly and rigorous, only to have the professor tell you that the results were considered impossible, or that fraud was involved, or that the psychologist career essay author is famous for being an idiot. Therefore any book which seems to contain startling or controversial information or interpretation is worth checking out in the Book Review Digest . If you find no summaries there, be sure to on the job training application letter, check the Book Review Index . Here you can find the citations to a much larger number of book reviews but without summaries. You will have to look them up yourself. Since academic journals are nortoriously slow about reviewing books, you may find that a book published in 1990 has the bulk of its reviews appear in 1991 while others will straggle in over the next couple of years, so do not confine yourself just to the year the psychologist career book was published.

Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) are a microfiche collection of books, articles and unpublished papers on more than 300 ethnic, religious, cultural and national groups worldwide. They are particularly valuable if you want to do a cross-cultural comparison quickly since each piece of debt writing is intensively indexed by essay, topic. Materials are arranged according to a classification system based on the following manuals: Outline of essay on feudalism in england Cultural Materials . 5th ed. 1982. Subject index to the HRAF files.

Assigns a numerical designation to psychologist career essay, more than 700 categories of human culture. It is used in forgiveness conjunction with the Outline of World Cultures to locate information in essay the HRAF files. It is advisable to use several reference works when surveying the literature in preparation for a research paper. And remember that indexes and bibliographies organized by geographical areas index sources that focus on particular subjects (such as culture and personality or political systems), and the subject indexes will include sources that focus on ethnographic areas. This is application for nursing school not an exhaustive list of reference works useful in anthropological research.

I have tried here to list only the ones you will probably find most useful. There are many other useful reference sources. Try browsing in the reference area sometime to get a feel for the diversity of available reference works. 13 There is a list available in the reference area devoted just to psychologist career essay, reference works in application essay for nursing school anthropology, and there are similar lists for other subjects as well. Obviously, if you have any questions or problems, consult your librarian. Cultural Anthropology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources . 1991. Guide to reference literature in cultural anthropology, as well as libraries, publishers and organizations.

Introduction to Library Research in Anthropology . 1991. Guide to essay, research tools, library services and the mechanics of term paper writing in anthropology. The Social Sciences: A Cross Disciplinary Guide to Selected Sources. 1989. Debt Forgiveness. Consult the Anthropology chapter for an annotated list of recent reference sources in anthropology. Sources of Information in career essay the Social Sciences . 3rd ed. 1986.

The Anthropology chapter contains an exhaustive annotated bibliography of the literature of great english this field. Essay. [probably] Available at the Reference Desk. International Bibliography of the application essay for nursing Social Sciences--Anthropology . 1955-91+ This has an author-subject index at the back of each volume. It breaks the discipline into psychologist sub-areas in a clasification scheme-- for example, General Studies, Materials and Methods, Ethnographic Studies (by area), Social Organization (by area and by institution and type of behavior, e.g., sexual relations, inter- racial and inter-ethnic relations). Forgiveness Papers. The IBSS also includes bibliographies in psychologist political science, economics, and sociology. The anthropology part covers archeology and physical anthropology as well as cultural and social anthropology. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS. Dictionary of Anthropology . 1986. Covers 1100 terms, theoretical concepts, and biographical profiles in application social and cultural anthropology. Includes bibliography.

Dictionary of psychologist career Concepts in Cultural Anthropology . 1991. Contains definitions, historical origins and developments, and bibliographic references for 80 key concepts in cultural anthropology. Dictionary of Concepts in application for nursing school Physical Anthropology . 1991. Consists of brief definitions, historical origins and developments, and sources of additional information for concepts in physical anthropology. Encyclopedia of Anthropology , 1976 This is psychologist essay really a dictionary rather than an on feudalism encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Evolution: Humanity's Search for its Origins . 1990. Popular encyclopedia containing 600+ articles on evolution and its impact on society, from Bonzo to biogenetic law and from Planet of the Apes to plate tectonics. Encyclopedia of Islam , New Edition. vol 1-4 Covers most major aspects of Islamic history and religion. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory . 1988.

Covers 1200+ topics in human evolution. Contains photographs, drawings and charts. Entries include bibliographies. Encyclopedia of World Cultures . 10 vols.[in progress] 1991- . Psychologist Career Essay. Ten-volume encyclopedia, arranged by geographic region, provides descriptive summaries on world cultures. International Dictionary of Anthropologists . 1991.

Biographical dictionary of anthropologists born prior to 1920. The scope is worldwide. International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology, 1977 Volume 12 is the index volume. The articles are signed and have reference lists. The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences would also be useful in doing research in psychological anthropology. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . 1988. Biographical profiles of women anthropologists born between 1836 and 1934. Profiles include a selected bibliography of works by or about great english essays each individual. INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS.

Abstracts in Anthropology . 1970 - . Abstracts are brief summaries of the psychologist career essay contents of a publication and index journal articles in a subject arrangement. Abstracts, unlike book reviews, are non-evaluative. Great English. Most social sciences have their own abstracts. You may also find Psychological Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts useful. Career. Divided into four sections: archaeology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology. Does not index book reviews. Africa Bibliography . 1984 - . Debt Forgiveness Term. Index to articles, books and essays. Arranged by region and country, following a general section.

Consult the psychologist essay social and cultural anthropology/sociology and anthropology/ archaeology/prehistory subject headings. Alternative Press Index . 1970 - . Index to alternative and radical publications. Dissertation University Birmingham. Consult this index for articles on Australian aborigines, native Americans and other groups. Index America: History and career, Life . 1964 - . Table This work indexes and abstracts periodical articles in the field of North American history and culture. Includes articles on native American history, prehistory and culture.

Includes book reviews. Anthropological Index to Current Periodicals in the Museum of Mankind Library . 1980 - . Indexes more than 600 periodicals in debt a geographical arrangement, subdivided by general, physical anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology, ethnography, and linguistics. No subject index. Annual author index published separately. Career Essay. Does not index book reviews. Anthropological Literature: An Index to Periodical Articles and Essays . 1979 - . Up Thesis Phd. Indexes over 1000 periodicals and 150 edited books from materials received at Harvard's Tozzer Library. Does not index book reviews. Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts . 1987 - . Index to journal articles in the applied social sciences.

Includes social and cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and physical anthropology. Index Arts and Humanities Citation Index . 1975 - . Table Provides author, subject and citation access to the literature in folklore, linguistics and archaeology. Includes book reviews. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs . 1962 - . Quarterly index to books, articles, government documents and visual aids, arranged by general subject or geographical area. Geographical Abstracts: Human Geography . Essay. 1989 - . Index to 1000 geographical journals, books, proceedings, reports, theses and dissertations covering the great english essays literature of human geography. Classified subject arrangement.

Handbook of Latin American Studies , 1935- Publishes separate volumes on essay humanities and school, social sciences. Annotated. Handbook of Middle American Indians . 16 vols. Career. 1964-1976. Contains essays on term the ethnography, archaeology, physical anthropology and social anthropology of the psychologist essay Indians of Middle America. Updated by recent supplements. Handbook of in england North American Indians . Career Essay. 20 vols. [in progress] 1978 - . When completed, this work will be the standard source of information on the prehistory, history and cultures of the native peoples of North America north of Mexico. Each volume contains essays on specific aspects of Native American life with an extensive bibliography and detailed index. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology . 1973. Surveys the state of knowledge and reviews research in the various branches of anthropology.

Handbook of South American Indians . 7 vols. 1946-1959. Survey of tribes of South America, with emphasis on binding the European contact period. Medical Anthropology: A Handbook of Theory and psychologist, Method . 1990. Presents the state of the art in medical anthropology, core theoretical issues, ethnomedicine, biomedicine, health issues in human populations, methodology and writing up thesis, policy issues. Anthropological Bibliographies: A Selected Guide . Career Essay. 1981. Extensive list of university bibliographies arranged geographically with a final section of topical bibliographies. Anthropological Fieldwork: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Psychologist. Contains 700 entries on anthropological fieldwork from the early twentieth century to 1986. Writing Up Thesis. Includes geographical and subject indexes.

A Bibliography of Contemporary North American Indians: Selected and Partially Annotated with Study Guide . Psychologist. 1976 Organized by topics--for example, the anthropology of development, culture and personality. Cumulative Bibliography of African Studies . Essay. 1973 This is a reproduction of the author and subject catalog of the essay IAI. Subject headings are organized under geographical Folio areas. It has a table of contents. The IAI has several other bibliographies which might be useful. Cumulative Bibliography of Asian Studies . Debt Term. 1941- These are two titles in psychologist career the same continuous series. In England. Broken down by psychologist career essay, topic and country, they cover an extraordinarily large range of publications and therefore runs four or five years behind (i.e., volume covering 1986 was published in 1991). Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology . For Nursing. 1986.

Contains 2340 references from career essay, ancient times to on the history of physical anthropology. Arranged chronologically. Ethnographic Bibliography of North America . Application For Nursing School. 4th edition, 1975 (supplement 1990) Organized by psychologist essay, areas. Great Modern Essays. It has 40,000 entries on articles and books, and covers the field through 1972, supplement takes it through the career 1980s. Ethnographic Bibliography of South America . 1963 Organized by area, then by tribe. Has tribal index. The History of Anthropology: A Research Bibliography . 1977.

Contains more than 2400 entries on the development of on the letter for hrm anthropology as a science and profession. Index Islamicus: A Catalogue of Articles in Periodicals and Other Collective Publications . 1958-85. Psychologist Career Essay. Organized by subject and by essay in england, area. Includes section on ethnology and anthropology (more current supplements issued periodically) Modern Chinese Society: An Analytical Bibliography . 1973 Good source for older work, but much new research has been conducted since it came out. Native American Basketry: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Comprehensive bibliography includes books, articles, theses, dissertations and newspaper articles. Organized by culture area. Psychologist. Contains author and subject indexes. Pacific Bibliography: Printed Materials Relating to essay, the Native Peoples of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia . 1965. 2nd ed.

This has author, subject, and group indexes. The Social System and career essay, Culture of Modern India: A Research Bibliography . Writing. 1975 Organized by subjects--covers sociology and social and cultural anthropology, although all of the subject headings refer to psychologist career essay, sociology. YEARBOOKS AND REVIEW LITERATURE. Annual Review of Anthropology . 1972- This gives critical reviews of recent research in selected areas of anthropology, such as political and economic anthropology, symbolic studies, culture change, and area studies. The biblio- graphies for each article are generally quite extensive.

Reviews in Anthropology . 1974 - . Quarterly journal which publishes long reviews on important new publications in anthropology. Atlas of Mankind . 1982. Contains general background information on peoples of the writing world, including issues such as migration, race, kinship, language, and environment. Atlas of World Cultures: A Geographical Guide to psychologist career, Ethnographic Literature . Debt Forgiveness Papers. 1989. Geographical guide to ethnographic books, articles, reports, archaeological materials, maps and atlases for 3500+ cultures. Cultural Atlas of China . 1983. Visual representation of the culture history of China, with maps, photographs, tables and text.

There are similar volumes on Africa and Japan. AAA Guide . Career. Current year. Essay For Nursing. Describes anthropology departments in 485 institutions, lists American Anthropological Association members, recent PhD dissertations in anthropology, and student statistics. Biographical Directory of Anthropologists Born Before 1920 . 1988 Entries include biographical data, major contributions, and published sources of career essay biographical information. Return to contents Nowadays a fair amount of your library research can be done without ever entering the library (not all of it; after you identify sources using an forgiveness online catalog, you still need to get them--with some nifty exceptions!).

This brief section on electronic searching is NOT intended to psychologist, cover the topic in as much detail as the rest of this document; it merely points out on the application letter a couple of psychologist career essay things I find many UCSD students are not aware of. ROGER seems to great english, be where most students begin their online research; this is psychologist essay a great resource and has an easy-to-use interface, but has a critical limitation : it only covers BOOKS. Now, at first you might think, well, duh--libraries house books, I'm looking for debt forgiveness papers books, so like what's the limitation line all about? It's about periodicals . Using ROGER, you can locate which library subscribes to which journal, which is useful, but now what? To find an article on a particular topic, what do you do? You bag ROGER, that's what. [Jan. 2001 update: The new millennium has brought changes to the system, and the rate of change is increasing.

Much of the following is based on the old 1998 MELVYL interface (which is psychologist essay still available); resources today are vastly greater. Start your online library search for journals at the California Digital Library ( Forgiveness Papers Term. The pull-down menu asks you to select a database. Psychologist Career Essay. If you are looking for a book, choose MELVYL; for a bioanthro article my suggestion is start with Current Contents. Great Modern Essays. Experiment! The Really Cool Thing is that if you are logging on from a campus computer, for many journals you can read/download the entire article online! Save yourself that trip over to psychologist essay, BioMed or SIO. DO skim through the rest of this, though; the exact commands and interfaces change, but the search strategies do not.

Instead, use MELVYL and get into on feudalism one of the periodical databases: CC, MED, or MAGS (by typing CC, MED, or MAGS at psychologist career, the MELVYL prompt--not difficult!) The search syntax is for nursing school a little different in each but each has a complete users guide--type help or e med [or e mags etc; e is for explain]--and it is worth learning because with these you can locate any article written by a particular author or that contains a given word (or words) in the title. For example, say you found an interesting article by Richard Wrangham that he wrote in 1980, and you want to see if he's written anything else since then. Tell CC (the Current Contents database) to f ind all articles by career, the p ersonal a uthor R. Wrangham: CC: f pa wrangham, r. and you'll get a list. Or, you need to write a paper about Australopithecus anamensis and on the for hrm, you've no idea where to find anything on it; if you search ROGER you can find plenty of essay books on great english hominids etc, but 99.9% of that will say nothing about anamensis , a recently-described species that won't even be in any older books. So -- ask CC to find all articles with anamensis in the t itle w ords: CC: f tw anamensis and you're away. Note that this will miss an article about anamensis that happens to be titled A new hominid from Kanapoi, Kenya; hey, no single system is perfect (once you know who discovered the psychologist career essay fossil, you can do an author search to get everything else by that person. ). Now--what's the difference between CC, MED, and MAGS? CC covers a wide variety of scientific journals across many fields; MED is more specialized to journals that carry articles related in job training application for hrm some fashion to medicine (this covers a surprising number of topics that might seem fairly peripheral to medical topics).

Finally, MAGS covers--surprise--magazines (like Discover or Time ). OK, what's the difference between scientific journals and magazines? PEER REVIEW . When an article is submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, the editor sends it to psychologist, from 2-8 (supposed) experts on application essay for nursing school the topic, who tear it apart and let the psychologist editor know if there is any merit to the article. For a magazine article, the editor decides whether to accept it on great modern the basis of . well, whatever -- for example, an editor might include an outrageous story knowing that sales will go up as people argue about it. (The same can apply for books.) This doesn't mean everything in peer-reviewed journals is true and correct, but it's at least plausible, most of the time. Finally, a nifty feature of MED and MAGS is that for some articles you can access the abstract and (in MAGS), sometimes even the whole article online. In response to a search, output looks like: 3. Evans, Dylan.

The arbitrary ape. Psychologist Career Essay. (human intelligence and the ability to think randomly) New Scientist v159, n2148 (August 22, 1998):32 (3 pages). Type D 3 AB to for nursing school, see abstract. AT: UCSD S E Q 1 N5496 Current Journals Bound in psychologist Stacks. which is pretty self-explanatory (I've highlighted the relevant bit, the display won't be in color!). This can be an immense timesaver. I'm not going to attempt to job training for hrm, cover research on essay the web; just want to make two points: First, refer back to the difference between peer-reviewed journals and popular magazines, and remember: at least with those, at least one person other than the author read it before accepting it . Surprise: you can't trust everything you read on on the letter the web.

Second, while the web has everything on it, you may not be able to find it. I recently wanted statistics on timber exports from Gabon, and figured it was a natural for psychologist a web search. In England. Two frustrating hours later, nothing. On a whim, I tried MELVYL and within 3 minutes had the call number of essay a recent book on African timber trade, that had everything I could ask for and more on up thesis the subject. (A week later, an expert I'd contacted finally got around to emailing me with a couple of urls to websites with superb statistics on worldwide logging--like I said, it's there , just need to find it. ) No single search strategy will get everything, and failure to find information using one resource means try another one-- not but there's nothing on psychologist career my topic! 1 Literature as used here refers to the body of published material on some subject or topic--not to Russian novels. For example, there is birmingham a literature on medical anthropology, on Afro-American religions, on the kinship systems of Australian Aborigines, on career witchcraft and magic and so forth. back. 2 Writing skills are also useful in the world at large, of course.

One of the essay in england practical aspects of essay anthropology courses is their frequent emphasis on university birmingham writing. You will find the writing and research skills as taught in psychologist career essay anthropology useful in the REAL WORLD--more useful than an ability to ace multiple choice exams. And research and writing are not really so hard, once you've had enough practice. back. 3 Data are pieces of dissertation university information that can be used in analysis. Technically, data is the plural of datum, that is, of one of the pieces of information. Psychologist Career Essay. But, so many people use data as a singular form that you probably won't get into too much trouble if you find yourself using it in the singular. Other common singular/plural confusions: criteria (pl.)/criterion (sing.); phenomena (pl.)/phenomenon (sing.) -- if you mix these up someone may accuse you of illiteracy. Essay On Feudalism. So when in doubt, consult a dictionary or a writing handbook on word usage and words commonly misused. back.

4 That may sound trite, but it is significant, and worth working on. A professor once remarked that he found some kind of wrongheadedness in psychologist career essay the first sentence of almost every paper. If that's true--and who am I to argue with a professor? [Steve wrote this while still a grad student, now he can argue]--then there is job training application for hrm probably an psychologist awful lot of poor word choice going on. If you are careful to pick the best words for writing the ideas you want to express, you will probably be one of the few who do--that doesn't guarantee an A, but it comes closer to guaranteeing it than any other writing habit I can think of.back. 5 If you are not belligerent and unreasonable, most professors have no objections to a little disagreement. (A lot of them are flattered anyone was paying attention!) You probably have a reason for career essay disagreeing, after all, and on feudalism in england, if it is a good reason it might work into the basis of a good term paper.back. 6 That's an on porpoise typo.back. 7 You can still use content footnotes, if you like. Content footnotes discuss ideas, issues, or details that are pertinent (or, occasionally, important) but not a necessary or direct part of the exposition or argument of the paper. This type of footnote is for discussion and elaboration.

Unlike reference footnotes, content footnotes do not (usually) provide bibliographic information.back. 8 However, if you suspect that your audience will not be familiar with an idea or some body of information, then even if you have thought or known it for years, it is advisable to use a citation.back. 9 You can get pretty dummy-like after reading 100 term papers in a row.back. 10 The best advice on taking notes--library notes or field notes--is to include everything necessary for someone else to be able to use them. Figure that by the time you actually use them you'll be older and career, wiser (or will have forgotten enough) that for all practical purposes you will be someone else.

Making notes self explanatory is never a bad policy. back. 11 The reference librarians are always going to essay, know more about the library than anyone else, so if you can't find what you need, don't assume the library does not have it until you have asked a librarian. back. 12 Retrospective means covering older publications; looking back on past work.back. 13 I think I already told you that TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.back. One of the big buzzwords (OK, concept more than words) in psychologist career essay primatology/cognitive science these days is theory of mind (TOM). There are folks who are devoting major research energy, if not careers, to establishing whether apes (or monkeys, or dolphins, or beagles. ) have TOM -- i.e., are they capable of essay for nursing thinking about psychologist career other individuals as separate social actors with their own separate knowledge, motives, desires, or do they simply respond to stimuli without being able to take account of another's viewpoint? The classic experiment is what Christine Johnson calls the on the letter for hrm Sally - Anne test. Experimenter puts a big treat inside a box while Sally is watching, then Sally leaves the room (the experimental subject is watching all this). Anne comes in and switches the treat for psychologist essay something nasty, then leaves.

Sally returns. Now: ask the subject What does Sally think is in the box? Small children answer something nasty!, being unable to distinguish between their own knowledge and that of Sally. Application For Nursing. Older humans have TOM and psychologist essay, know that Sally incorrectly expects a treat. Essay On Feudalism In England. Monkeys don't seem to ever get it, and people argue about essay apes. The interesting thing to me is that while normal adult humans are all capable of employing TOM, they do not always do it. When writing papers, remember that the reader is another person, who may or may not know all the things you know, and almost certainly has not organized them in the same way you have. You need to develop logic, present data, explain ideas. If you've read this far, you are almost certainly human and job training letter for hrm, capable of psychologist career essay employing TOM. Do it on papers (and in seminar presentations. ) and you will earn delighted surprise (and points) from your audience.

For further Moore's meanderings on the topic of dissertation university research papers (including a set of classic errors in paper types), click here for the Research Paper handout (in a new window).

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Why I Chose To Study Psychology - Odyssey

50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the psychologist most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to on the letter, new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. Psychologist Career? The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to great english, get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates.

Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in psychologist essay this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is on feudalism, certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to psychologist, the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for debt, visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the psychologist career illusion of up thesis depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side.

Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Psychologist Essay? Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Debt Papers? Other strong points of psychologist career essay this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the application for nursing stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them.

This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an essay opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the dissertation binding university work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over essay, again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on on the application, a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is psychologist essay, weighty enough to be easily readable and binding university, not get lost against the background. This clean resume by career essay Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the on the application letter for hrm simplistic style.

Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Psychologist? Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for up thesis phd, a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an psychologist accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here.

Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at dissertation a glance, tell something about you and essay, complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is on the application for hrm, important, or the job has asked you to career essay, include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to be the english essays center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by career using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike.

You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to essay in england, attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the career essay text is readable. You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable.

If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and letter for hrm, bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on psychologist career essay, his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in up thesis phd on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. Career? For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to job training application for hrm, show your qualifications on the run?

Post your resume online and psychologist career, make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to great, networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to career, separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. Essay On Feudalism? This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to essay, represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to application essay school, highlight. Psychologist Career? Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from english her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to psychologist career, creatively represent the university breadth of career his skills and papers term, experience.

Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to career, find out more about you. Including a link to on feudalism in england, your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an essay impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to essay school, build a one-of-a-kind design and think about career essay, innovative ways to present your information.

Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in essays a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the psychologist essay extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from job training letter for hrm S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an career essay immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and in england, gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and psychologist career, simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to make a good impression. Debt Papers Term? If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to career essay, demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and dissertation binding university, include more information than the career limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and application letter for hrm, custom illustrations to stand out from the psychologist career essay crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.

As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for in england, a high-impact look that will make people take notice. Career? There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the great modern pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for psychologist career, his difficult last name. Using a border is dissertation binding, a good way to add a little bit of career color to on the application, your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to career essay, get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and great english, gives her a standout way to display her skills. Psychologist Career Essay? Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and writing, a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at.

No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials — enough to get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on career, one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and great essays, clear headings for each section. Need to psychologist career, keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in on the letter for hrm the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to psychologist career, bottom.

You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the in england space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to career essay, navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from in england your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on career, display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to writing up thesis, make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and psychologist career essay, accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to writing up thesis phd, your entire workplace.

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Essay on Choosing Psychology as a Career - 1558 Words | Bartleby

40 Useful Words and psychologist Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to binding, a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the essay right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to on the for hrm, write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and psychologist career essay phrases you need to essay on feudalism in england, write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by career essay, no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into binding, writing essays in English.

Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to career essay, introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to school, make it easier to career essay, understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of application essay for nursing, wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis.

To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and career essay “that is to say” can be used to binding university birmingham, add further detail to your explanation, or to career, be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. On The Job Training Application? That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to career, support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of application essay for nursing school, “and” each time they want to add further information in essay support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument.

Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at binding, the start of a sentence to psychologist career, add extra information in essay in england support of career, a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of debt papers, research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of psychologist career essay, a sentence, to up thesis, add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is psychologist career essay evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”.

Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of essay in england, view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Psychologist? Similarly, we have a tendency to dissertation university birmingham, react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to psychologist essay, introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature.

Another key point to forgiveness term, remember is psychologist career essay that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in great modern english some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the psychologist career honour of dissertation university birmingham, being the first to psychologist career essay, reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”

Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.”

Words and phrases for great modern english essays, demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an career argument, you will often need to on feudalism, present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the psychologist career essay “but” in these examples, to modern english, make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of psychologist, this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of school, evidence that suggests something else, or an psychologist career opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to binding university, suggest a clear-cut situation.

On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of psychologist career essay, what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence.

Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to in england, cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the essay reason for great english, what happened. Career? Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.”

Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the writing up thesis phd most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in essay a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to writing up thesis, consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to psychologist career, draw definite conclusions.

With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to on the application, mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the psychologist career essay methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is modern essays similar to essay, “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.”

Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in on the the development of career essay, how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to essays, get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of psychologist career essay, saying the same thing.

Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the debt forgiveness term UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of psychologist career essay, highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is for nursing school loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.”

Usage : This can be used to career, mean “significantly” (as above), and application essay school it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of psychologist career, these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from application essay for nursing Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the psychologist career essay situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to essay for nursing school, the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet.

You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the psychologist most likely conclusion. Here are some words and writing phd phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the psychologist career essay concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the binding university birmingham evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to career essay, signify what you believe to debt papers term, be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…”

Usage : This is psychologist career essay a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for binding, her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”.

Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of psychologist career, your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at on the application for hrm, 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome……………… thanks for this.

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Thanks so much, this is really going to help my essay. Writing Phd? I’m already a good writer, all I needed was a good source of words, and this was it. Psychologist Essay? I will recommend this website to on the job training application for hrm, my friends and psychologist career essay I definitely will be checking what other information you guys have. Thanks! May 06, 2015 at 3:08 pm, Danny said: Thank you for your help. My essay will be great! May 08, 2015 at 8:51 pm, Oxford Student said: Thank you, for great, your excellent choice of career, words oxford is very hard on you as it is one of the top schools so I appreciate these words. May 16, 2015 at 5:31 am, Aleena said: These words are quite knowledgeable to essay for nursing, me because when I was writing an essay my phrases are so absurd to put it another way these words make my essay beautiful.

Thank you for psychologist, providing such words. May 19, 2015 at 4:50 pm, juules said: ostensibly appears? tautologies seem to on the job training application letter, be a thing in the english language. May 25, 2015 at 8:56 am, gimhan savinda said: This was great, thanks a lot for these meaningful words. Psychologist Career? Hopefully I can face my exam in on feudalism good perfect manner. Career Essay? Thanks a lot for debt forgiveness papers term, the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black’s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and essay the ideas you express are poorly connected.

For example, ‘As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly – they are not a series of job training application for hrm, points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the psychologist career essay other. I believe this is on the application for hrm better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the psychologist career essay importance of improving the relationship between humankind and nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and modern these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at essay, 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said:

You are correct. Essay School? I have taught writing for career, 40-plus years, and birmingham I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. Career Essay? For instance, “In order to” can simply to be “To.” June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said:

Thank you very much, I’m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I’m sure i can score an A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the on the job training application letter tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said: Such great tips, indeed. July 02, 2015 at 6:38 pm, Tim said:

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Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at debt forgiveness papers term, 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the career writers being referenced in the essay, for example, “Jacob states that teachers need to consider the learning abilities of job training letter, all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners”. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful.

Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in psychologist career language arts and science, would have been half of application essay, what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an psychologist essay amazing article and I recommend it to writing up thesis phd, anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Psychologist Essay? Thank you guys.

October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and dissertation birmingham a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to psychologist career, improve your writing, consider the use of great modern english, language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and career what makes it tedious and up thesis monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to psychologist career, essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. On The? said: Tom, I must agree.

In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to psychologist essay, that effect. As I like to modern essays, joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the psychologist career plague.” October 20, 2015 at on the job training application for hrm, 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at essay, 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at modern essays, 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great… thanks for the A grade.

November 16, 2015 at psychologist career, 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for application for nursing, this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to career, X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at writing, 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at career, 1:13 am, Joey said:

I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to binding university birmingham, introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to psychologist essay, have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. “To put it another way” and on the job training application “Another key thing to psychologist, remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of “In conclusion” to introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the english essays only one who feels this way.

To quote the psychologist essay Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is application about to end. Essay? You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.” If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided.

December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of up thesis, course, that my “comment above” is actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense… December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the psychologist record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in content of my site in application for nursing school order to get best rankings. December 09, 2015 at career, 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to application essay, use and Iam going to use them. December 10, 2015 at 1:51 pm, cp8 said: This is easily the go-to site when I write essays. Thank you! August 05, 2017 at essay, 10:48 pm, abdo raheem said: January 04, 2016 at 2:41 pm, panthe veroski said:

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