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Audience Analysis Paper Essay Sample. As a manager, quarterly meetings are imperative in order to doctora, keep every manager as well as employee, aware of how the company is doing productively as well as financially. In these meetings each manager is called upon to address the essay, District Manager, Regional Manager, Store Managers as well as all ATT Stakeholders for the west coast market the thesis, presentation is to address both internal and external channels of business. Managers inside the company as well as stakeholders outside the company are in attendance of quarterly meetings. One of the topics discussed is year over year numbers as well as month over on hamlet's madness, month numbers. Store managers are required to present a presentation of the stores current standings financially, how much foot traffic they receive, how many new accounts are activated, upgraded, optional features tacked on accounts as well as an action plan to increase opportunities. When addressing the panel of managers I prepare a power point presentation with all of my stores financial information as well as my action plan and profit per opportunity. When addressing the managers, the characteristics I have to consider is, what this meeting is going to accomplish, how to address the individual interests of each manager and doctora thesis give each individual the information I assume they will appreciate and anticipate to see pay forward. Each manager is annotated apa looking to see what I have prepared to share.
In the retail world, everyone’s paycheck is at thesis, stake. Therefore, everyone wants to know how you are going to secure yours as well as everyone else’s. Tv Boon Or Curse? The channels of communication for a meeting such as this are considered face to face. The presentation is given in front of all the managers while you stand and go through each topic of doctora thesis discussion. While giving the presentation another communication channel used is electronic. The presentation I prepare is power point which is transmitted from my lap top onto or curse essay, a projected screen in front of the room where everyone can view it. Each slide displays footnotes for thesis me to reflect on the information of each slide as well as giving the panel a chart so they can visually understand the figures I have calculated. Creative Writing Camps Massachusetts? The charts communicate where my store was a couple years ago in both financial as well as customer volume. Year over thesis, year projections are displayed as well as month over month charts in thesis and contrast, order to display what my stores average is and what the projections of my store look like. While I go through each slide I speak using the notes I made for thesis myself as well as bullets reiterating my points.
In quarterly meetings it is appropriate to use electronics and prepare a presentation because it shows that a manager is prepared to writing summer massachusetts, address any issues or concerns and is completely aware of how their store is operating and thesis how to operate it. Verbal face to essays madness, face communication is also the most appropriate channel of communication to use because you are able to show the managers how confident you are as a manager by expressing body language as well as verbally addressing all managers in a professional manner. The meeting is more personable as each meeting occurs, managers get to know one another as well as communicate on thesis a more regular basis and share thoughts and imagery in macbeth essay ideas. While I communicate to all of the managers, I observe my own ethical standards as well as what I perceive to be others standards as well. In a business such as the one I work in, organizations are always competing for the highest profits as well as to be the best in doctora, the market. Considering my audience I know they want to hear how I plan to effectively meet or exceed financial projections implemented from the calculations I have done.
As a manager I try to communicate clear direction as well as goals. Direction and goals is directed to everyone, but most importantly, to the ATT stakeholders. ATT is good thesis and contrast essay always interested in how we are going to proceed in business; where as my district manager and regional manager want to hear the financial standings of the presentation. To the managers on a the store level, I offer my ideas and suggestions of doctora thesis how I am going to good for compare and contrast, go about business and how I plan to make my mark on the map, In order for my presentation to go over smoothly, I have to doctora thesis, get a feel for essay my audience so I can effectively set the tone of my presentation. I am a very outspoken individual with a sense of humor.
I enjoy lifting the tension and the elevating the mood of the group, and thesis incorporate a little bit of thesis for compare essay laughter. The diversity of the group is a mixture of individuals who are business professional, being serious when they need to be serious, stress important points of interest, and enjoying a little bit of humor as well. Keeping the diversity of the group in mind, I can effectively communicate and deliver a presentation to hit on doctora all topics and interests of the group in the meeting. Effective communication across both channels is necessary for a business to thrive. Internal communication keeps a business viable. Without communication between all levels of the business, directives cannot be completed, slowing the growth of the usm college, business. External communication is the lifeblood of a business. Without clear communication of a company#8217;s products to customers, a business will not grow. (Francis, 2009) The quarterly managers meetings are an effective way for all managers internal and external to thesis, communicate. Having the presentations take place in a face to face communication channel allows a clear form of communicating information from one side of the business to the other.
Allowing all stakeholders and managers to sleep essay, be present gives each manager the opportunity to speak with almost everyone involved within the organization and doctora thesis business. Some companies do not interact with certain levels within their company such as the VP, Board of Directors, ect. Fortunately my company welcomes the communication between one another. The face to face communication also allows us to critical essays madness, communicate on a more personable level. The fact that if I have any questions, I have all of my higher up’s phone numbers and can contact them whenever I have a question is exceptional open means of communication. Business Communication. Doctora? (2007, May). Retrieved from http://www.family-business-experts.com/business-communication.html Francis, K. A. (2009, July).
Importance ofCcommunication Channels. Creative Writing Summer Camps? Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-business-communication-channels-117.html Importance of Business Communication Channels. (2009, july). Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-business-communication-channels-117.html K.A. Francis, Demand Media. Why Good Communication is Good Business. (2005, December). Doctora Thesis? Retrieved from http://www.bus.wisc.edu/update/winter05/business_communication.asp. Is this the perfect essay for writing you? Save time and doctora thesis order Audience Analysis Paper. Creative Writing Camps? essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and doctora quality guaranteed!
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On August 5, 2010, there#8230; Group organizational structure audience and action plan. Audience – Management, current employees, new employees, the community it serves. Our rationale is that we need to address this audience because of the hiring process for our facility. Develop#8230; Management Style Paper. Many people believe they can either be a good or great manager. The actual reality to this is some people are actually not fit to be a manager either because#8230; Implementing Change Paper. Implementing change in an organization is complicated. It is important that a manager understands their role and responsibilities for which could very well be the thesis for compare essay, success or failure of an#8230; Analysis of effective Group Communication.
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Le mythe de Venus Adonis a l’epreuve de la tradition iconographique. Universite de Caen, Basse-Normandie. Pages : 192 ISBN : 9782130529545 DOI : 10.3917/dss.021.0099 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Dix-septieme siecle. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue.
Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Doctora Thesis. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. De nombreux auteurs francais ont puise leur source d’inspiration dans l’episode du livre X des Metamorphoses d’Ovide qui represente Venus egaree par son amour pour le bel Adonis : « Elle ne se montre meme plus dans le ciel : au ciel elle prefere Adonis. Imagery In Macbeth. Elle s’attache a ses pas ; elle l’accompagne partout. Doctora Thesis. »   Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, traduction de Georges Lafaye. Good For Compare And Contrast Essay. . Doctora. Parmi eux, on massachusetts, pourra citer Pierre de Ronsard en 1564   Pierre de Ronsard, « Adonis », elegie de 368 vers. Thesis. , puis Jean de La Fontaine qui a compose un long poeme de 606 vers, egalement intitule Adonis   Jean de La Fontaine, ?uvres diverses, Paris, Gallimard. Annotated Bibliographies Apa. , qu’il a dedicace a Nicolas Fouquet, alors jeune homme, qui se remettait d’une grave maladie. Doctora. Ce poeme, ecrit en 1658, mais publie seulement en 1669 dans une version retouchee a la suite des Amours de Psyche et de Cupidon, a ete recemment mis en valeur a la scene par la merveilleuse representation theatralisee sur fond de reprographies des collections du Louvre par le comedien et metteur en scene Christian Rist   28, 29, 30 janvier 1999, auditorium du Louvre. Essay. . Doctora. En Angleterre, William Shakespeare ne fait pas exception, dont le long poeme (1 194 vers) en pentametres de rimes croisees, dedie a son mecene « Le Tres Honorable Henry Wriothesly », date de 1592. Cette histoire tragique n’a pas seulement inspire les ecrivains. Writing Summer Massachusetts. Les peintres europeens se sont egalement nourris de cette legende antique pour laisser a la posterite des ?uvres remarquables, tant par le nombre de creations que par la diversite des inspirations. Thesis. Dans cette etude, je souhaiterais analyser differentes productions picturales, dont, bien evidemment, les premieres influences determinantes seront les ecoles italiennes, sur une duree de deux siecles (a partir du XVI e siecle pour culminer au siecle suivant), pour en degager les caracteristiques principales et proposer des conclusions sur la distinction entre art religieux et art profane. Lorsque l’on consulte des livres d’art sur les ?uvres d’un artiste, prenons le Titien, les references aux tableaux de Venus, sur la table des illustrations, viennent juste avant celles concernant les sujets d’inspiration chretienne sur la Vierge : Venus Adonis, Venus bandant les yeux de l’Amour ou l’education de l’Amour, Venus d’Urbino, Venus au miroir, Venus avec un joueur d’orgue et un petit chien, puis juste ensuite, Vierge de Douleur aux mains jointes   Tiziano, catalogo della Mostra, Palazzo Ducale, Venezia. Camps. . Thesis. Il s’agit la d’un hasard de l’alphabet, cependant, il n’en est plus tout a fait ainsi de nos jours ou les references approchantes renvoient plutot a une tres complete variation sur le theme d’Eros, mais sans rapport direct avec la mythologie, ou bien s’apparentent a un culte noir peu propice aux recherches universitaires ! Mais la distinction entre l’amour sacre et l’amour profane n’est pas une notion nouvelle, puisque nous avons l’exemple tres celebre de l’allegorie du Titien portant ce titre   Conservee a la Galerie Borghese a Rome (huile sur. Essay. . Doctora Thesis. De forme allongee, ce tableau est tres parlant, qui represente deux jeunes femmes d’une beaute parfaite, et qui se ressemblent ; l’une, l’amour sacre, habillee d’une ample robe de couleur pastel, gantee, le visage et le regard franchement tournes vers le spectateur dans toute sa candeur honnete, assise avec aisance a gauche du tableau, separee de l’autre par un petit enfant rondelet, ange ou amour ; l’autre, l’amour profane, dans une position alanguie, offerte, le visage descendant et de cote, denudee, mais aux voilages d’un bleu profond.
Nombreux sont les artistes qui ont suivi la fable d’Ovide, non pas a la lettre, mais en amplifiant considerablement la description de Venus malade d’amour : « . Annotated Apa. elle qui avait toujours ete habituee a gouter un doux repos sous les ombrages et a rehausser sa beaute par la parure, elle erre ca et la a travers les montagnes, les forets et les roches buissonneuses, sa robe retroussee jusqu’aux genoux a la facon de Diane »   Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, op. Doctora Thesis. cit. Usm College. . Doctora. Mais on tv boon or curse essay, verra que sa robe, quand robe il y a, est plus souvent retroussee a partir du genou ! A ce propos, on doctora, se doit d’evoquer le nom de Daniele Ricciarelli da Volterra, connu depuis lors sous le surnom de « il Braghettone », qui fut charge, par decision de la Congregation du Concile en date du 21 janvier 1564, de couvrir de draperies les peintures de Michel Ange dans la chapelle Sixtine. Tv Boon. Avaient ete jugees « obscenes », en particulier, dix figures de la fresque du Jugement dernier placee juste au-dessus de l’autel papal, dont sainte Catherine qui, a l’origine, etait entierement nue, selon la tradition du maitre qui voyait dans la nudite soit l’etat d’innocence d’avant le peche originel, soit celui d’innocence supreme dans le royaume de Dieu   Ceci donna lieu a de celebres confusions au cours. Doctora. . Le culte de Venus a inspire les artistes au cours des siecles : Venus seule, en compagnie, ou bien sa premiere apparition, comme La naissance de Venus par Botticelli   Detrempe sur toile (172 ? 278) datee aux alentours. Annotated Apa. . Thesis. Ce celebre tableau vaut la peine d’etre mentionne par le fait que la deesse est representee en femme accomplie des sa premiere apparition hors des ondes, suivant la legende. Annotated Bibliographies. Nous verrons a la fin de cette etude que ce theme de la naissance, mais celle d’Adonis, sera traite tout differemment par un peintre francais, Francois Verdier, deux siecles plus tard. Restons encore aupres de Botticelli pour donner l’exemple d’un autre passage des peripeties amoureuses de la deesse, en particulier avec Mars, et qui pourra servir ensuite de point de comparaison. Thesis. Sandro Botticelli (Florence, 1445-1510) apprend de son maitre Filippo Lippi « la grace, le gout du beau et l’intensite des couleurs »   Guilio Carlo Argan, Botticelli (1957), traduit de. Essay. . Doctora Thesis. Venus et Mars, peint aux environs de 1483   National Gallery, Londres. Creative Writing Camps. , reprend « les vues de Marsile Ficin sur la reconstruction de la mythologie antique » et frappe par la statique en suspens et la symetrie des deux protagonistes, places en position inversee, l’un et l’autre accoudes sur un element de couleur rouge fuchsia : un coussin rehausse de dorures pour Venus, un tissu dans lequel est pris le pied gauche de Mars.
La deesse au fin visage enigmatique recoit la pleine lumiere, par comparaison avec Mars dont la tete, sur laquelle des ombres subtiles se dessinent, est rejetee en arriere. Thesis. Venus porte une robe nuptiale richement decoree et tres couvrante dont les ondulations epousent elegamment les formes de son corps, alors que dans des ?uvres posterieures, la deesse sera le plus souvent representee dans toute sa nudite. Sleep Essay. D’apres le titre du tableau, et les commentaires, Venus « observe le redoutable Mars vaincu par l’amour et plonge dans un profond sommeil ». Thesis. Mais si ce n’etait le casque du dieu de la guerre malicieusement porte par l’un des quatre petits satyres (qui contrastent par leur sourire narquois, leur espieglerie et leur dynamique autour de la lance), on annotated bibliographies apa, pourrait se meprendre sur la representation du mythe qui nous concerne, puisque l’on aura l’occasion de voir un certain nombre d’Adonis ainsi abandonnes, sur des etoffes ecarlates. Thesis. Botticelli est l’un des representants de la deuxieme generation de l’ecole florentine de la Renaissance   Georges Lafenestre, La peinture italienne, Paris. Thesis For Compare And Contrast Essay. . Le terme de « manierisme », apparu plus tardivement et selon une acception d’abord pejorative, designe le courant artistique europeen qui se situe entre la Renaissance et le Baroque, des annees 1520 – avec comme reference le sac de Rome en 1527 – a 1620 environ. Doctora. Tres succinctement, les donnees essentielles de cette « nouvelle maniere » sont « le mouvement, la fantaisie, le drame, le subjectivisme et l’expressionnisme »   Encyclopedia Universalis, 1990, vol. Creative Writing Summer. 14, p. Doctora. 447. Good For Compare Essay. . Doctora. On ressent tres nettement l’influence du peintre Francesco Mazzola, surnomme Il Parmigianino, Le Parmesan (1503-1540), dont l’?uvre a ete largement diffusee grace a ses nombreux dessins et gravures, en Italie comme en France. Usm College. Artiste precoce, il travailla d’abord dans sa ville natale de Parme (certains disent avec Antonio Allegri, dit Il Correggio, Le Correge, d’autres refutent cette hypothese   Cecil Gould, Parmesan (1994), traduit par Xavier Carrere. Thesis. ). Summer. Lors de son sejour a Rome en 1524-1527   Il se refugia a Bologne apres avoir fui Rome en 1527. Doctora Thesis. , il s’inspira de Raphael et de Michel-Ange. Good For Compare And Contrast Essay. Dans une eau-forte, intitulee Les Amants dans un bois, qui reprend notre theme mais de facon anonyme, on doctora, peut remarquer l’utilisation tres particuliere du clair-obscur, puisque, grace au burin avec lequel les lignes peuvent etre plus fines que dans le dessin, les contrastes de lumiere et d’ombre sont accentues.
Une tres forte construction delimite ce paysage dans lequel sont plonges les sujets, et qui se compose de differents plans intimement melanges : la vegetation est foisonnante, les arbres et surtout les feuilles sont dessines avec un grand sens du detail (on en verra un certain echo dans une peinture de Veronese). Essay. On notera l’equilibre superbe mais incertain des postures, ainsi que le modele des corps. Doctora Thesis. Grand specialiste du nu masculin, Le Parmesan a figure l’homme selon une courbe tres complexe qui s’appuie sur la ligne formee par la colonne vertebrale ; la musculature est apparente et la chevelure tout aussi finement detaillee que le paysage. For Compare And Contrast. On peut aussi evoquer un trait particulier de cet artiste concernant l’allongement des membres (le tronc de l’homme et le cou de la femme), caracteristique qui se retrouve dans d’autres ?uvres celebres, comme La Madone au long cou, datee de la fin de sa vie   1553-1540, Galerie des Offices, Florence. Doctora. . Il existait donc tout un contexte artistique favorable a l’eclosion des representations de ce mythe. Essay. Considerons pour commencer un theme majeur, la fin tragique du jeune ephebe, avec La Mort d’Adonis de Sebastiano Veneziano (env. Doctora Thesis. 1485, Venise - 1547, Rome), surnomme del Piombo lorsqu’il recut, en 1531, la charge de chancelier des Bulles, ou « du plomb ». Good For Compare Essay. Ne a Venise presque au moment ou Botticelli peignait Venus et Mars, il fut l’eleve de Bellini et de Giorgione. Doctora. De ce dernier, il retint le sens des couleurs pleines de nuances et l’utilisation du clair-obscur. Imagery Essay. Parti pour Rome en 1511, il se lia d’abord avec Raphael, mais il « tomba sous l’ascendant de Michel-Ange », dont il s’inspira, en particulier en ce qui concerne la force de la composition ; mais « un maitre qui avait appris avec Bellini et Giorgione ne pouvait plus perdre tout a fait sa maitrise de la couleur et de l’harmonie du ton »   Bernhard Berenson, Les peintres italiens de la Renaissance. Doctora. . Sleep. Apres la mort de Raphael, Sebastiano del Piombo occupa la premiere place parmi les peintres de Rome, et influenca Daniele da Volterra, le fameux braghettone auquel il a ete fait allusion.
La Mort d’Adonis   Peinture a l’huile sur toile (189 ? 285), Salle des. Thesis. frappe par le caractere monumentaliste de la composition, entierement creee autour d’une diagonale montante qui part d’Adonis mort et qui se prolonge tout le long des angelots et des femmes jusqu’a la figure de cet homme barbu. Sleep In Macbeth. Tous sont lies par les delicats mouvements des bras qui se croisent. Thesis. Les corps sont lisses et bien en chair et presentent un contraste avec celui d’Adonis, qui loin de « reposer » au sol, reste tendu, les membres plies, la tete relevee. Tv Boon Or Curse Essay. L’atmosphere melancolique et crepusculaire de l’arriere-plan, qui represente une vision tres reconnaissable de Venise, avec la lagune et le Palais des Doges, trahit encore l’influence de Giorgione   Caterina Caneva, Aless Cecchi, Antonio Natali, Les. Doctora Thesis. . Fig. Creative Summer Camps. 1 – Jacopo Zanguidi Bertoja, Venus Adonis, Louvre. Fig. Doctora Thesis. 2 – Martin de Vos, La Mort d’Adonis, Blois, cliche RMN. Dans un tout autre style, Jacopo Zanguidi Bertoja (1544-1574), admirateur notoire de la technique du Parmesan, et celebre pour sa decoration raffinee du palais du Jardin a Parme, a egalement compose un Venus Adonis (fig. Sleep. 1)   Musee du Louvre. Doctora. . Or Curse Essay. L’evocation est tres nettement placee sous le signe de la vision et du mythe : une foret sombre illuminee par cette apparition de Venus parmi les nuees, sur son char dore conduit par deux colombes blanches, en compagnie de Cupidon, dont une fleche s’est fichee en bas du nuage, et qui semble raconter la triste fin d’Adonis, qui git a terre en plan median.
Les couleurs sont toutes en harmonie dans de subtiles nuances qui passent du noir en haut a gauche pour aller jusqu’au blanc lumineux a droite, en passant par le jaune (sans oublier le blond des chevelures) et le vert du paysage et des drapes. Les deux evocations qui vont suivre s’apparentent egalement au style manieriste italianisant, mais ont ete faites par des artistes « du Nord », ce qui montre le developpement geographique de cette influence. Doctora. On connait tres peu de choses de cet artiste flamand, Martin de Vos (env. Thesis For Compare Essay. 1532-1603) qui a peint une Mort d’Adonis (fig. Doctora Thesis. 2)   Musee du Louvre. Sleep. reprenant certains elements mythologiques, comme le char de Venus – tire ici par deux puissants cygnes blancs suivant le texte –, mais dans une composition entierement a l’horizontale. Doctora. On reconnaitra le sens des details : les volutes du decor a droite, les figurations sur le char, les feuillages sombres qui donnent de la luminosite au premier plan et qui eloignent du paysage de l’arriere-plan : chateau perche et montagnes lointaines. Or Curse Essay. Venus et Adonis sont assembles selon une sorte de pieta sous un ciel crepusculaire. Doctora. Cette analogie chretienne peut sembler abusive, mais elle est cependant inevitable et si rare a cette epoque, qu’elle vaut la peine d’etre mentionnee.
Pendant son regne (1515-1547), Francois I er renouvela les echanges avec l’Italie et appela de nombreux peintres italiens a sa cour. Essay. C’est ainsi que trois peintres italiens, eux-memes influences par les plus grands maitres, produisirent de nombreux tableaux qui ornerent les differents chateaux. Doctora Thesis. Il s’agit de Rosso, ne a Florence en 1495, appele a la cour en 1530, du Primatice et de Nicolo dell’Abbate, qui decorerent le chateau de Fontainebleau. Critical Essays On Hamlet's. Durant les dix annees qui lui restent a vivre (il meurt en 1540, la meme annee que Le Parmesan) Giovanni Battista di Jacopo, dit Fiorentino Rosso, crea un nouveau style decoratif et introduisit le manierisme en France   Il composa lui aussi une peinture sur le theme de. Thesis. . Essay. A sa suite, des artistes formeront ce qu’il a ete convenu d’appeler l’Ecole de Fontainebleau, pour laquelle on doctora thesis, peut retenir les noms de Jean Clouet, d’origine flamande, celebre pour ses portraits, et de son fils Francois. Writing. Selon le v?u des differents monarques qui se succedent (Francois I er , Henri II, Francois II, Charles IX), les arts refletent le culte de « cette elegance raffinee et luxueuse », la place preponderante de la litterature classique et « le gout de la nature »   Lionello Venturi, La peinture de la Renaissance de. Thesis. . Annotated Bibliographies. Sur un bois de petit format, Venus pleurant la mort d’Adonis (fig. Thesis. 3)   (53 ? 42), deuxieme moitie du XVIe s., Musee du L. Sleep. reprend certaines caracteristiques issues de l’art italien : un arriere-plan tres complexe, aux nombreuses fractures et au paysage varie, qui part du plus sombre dans cette foret isolee, au plus clair vers l’infini d’un ciel lumineux, en passant par une scene minuscule et peu visible, mais tres importante, en bordure de la foret, au milieu du tableau a droite. Doctora. Quatre angelots effectuent une sorte de danse autour d’un sanglier, celui sans doute qui a porte un coup fatal a Adonis. Sleep Imagery Essay. Au premier plan, Cupidon pleure la mort d’Adonis, etendu au sol de cote, la tete reposant sur un socle sureleve, comme un gisant en habit. Doctora Thesis. Venus, le sein decouvert comme le dit la fable, mais vetue de riches habits tres ornes, se penche au-dessus de lui, assistee de trois Graces dans la lignee des figures allongees du Parmesan et vetues de drapes incolores comme chez Botticelli. Creative Camps. Est-elle en train de verser le « nectar embaume » ? On remarquera que, malgre certains titres generaux, a cette periode, l’inspiration des peintres privilegie les representations de la mort du heros. Doctora. La suite va changer les perspectives.
Fig. Tv Boon. 3 – Venus pleurant la mort d’Adonis, Ecole francaise, 2 e moitie XVI e , Louvre. Fig. Thesis. 4 – Lambert Sustris, La Mort d’Adonis, Louvre. Fig. Imagery. 5 – Le Titien, Venus Adonis, vers 1551, Museo National del Prado, Madrid. La figure de Tiziano Veccellio (vers 1490-1576) a domine la peinture pendant pres de soixante ans, non seulement a Venise, mais dans d’autres pays d’Europe. Thesis. Apres avoir ete l’eleve de Bellini et de Giorgione, il revint a Venise en 1513 ou il regna en maitre, jusqu’en 1545, date a laquelle il partit pour Rome. Thesis For Compare And Contrast. Il fut invite par Charles Quint a Augsbourg et, en 1551, il finit par trouver le mecene a la hauteur de son art dans le fils de l’empereur, Philippe II d’Espagne, auquel il restera attache jusqu’a la fin de sa vie.
Ce fut un peintre extremement prolifique, qui profita de diverses influences au cours de sa longue carriere et qui sut aussi imposer son style propre. Thesis. Etant donne l’activite debordante de son atelier, il est tres difficile d’authentifier certaines ?uvres comme etant le travail d’eleves, ou du maitre. Usm College. C’est le cas pour ce Venus et Adonis, peint aux environs de 1560   National Gallery of doctora thesis Art, Washington DC ; Bibliotheque. Usm College Essay. , dont il existe plusieurs versions tres similaires, mais neanmoins differentes, dont une a la Galerie Barberini, a Rome (sur laquelle Adonis est affuble d’un curieux couvre-chef). Thesis. La version qui nous interesse (fig. Usm College. 5) a ete executee pour Philippe II d’Espagne vers les annees 1551-1554   (186 ? 207), vers 1551-1554, Le Prado, Madrid. Doctora Thesis. . Imagery In Macbeth Essay. Cette grande huile fait partie d’une poesie, une suite de six compositions inspirees de la mythologie, qui s’echelonnent de 1533 avec Danae recevant la pluie d’or (fig. Doctora. 6)   Egalement au Musee du Prado, Madrid (128 ? 180). Essay. Certainement. Doctora. , a 1562 avec L’Enlevement d’Europe   Musee de Boston. On Hamlet's. que le roi d’Espagne conservait dans ses appartements prives, pour son usage personnel. Doctora Thesis. Venus Adonis et Danae auraient ete concus pour se repondre, car Danae est representee de face, et Venus de dos, si bien que l’?il peut contempler, en un seul regard, les deux cotes d’une femme nue.
Le corps jeune et vigoureux d’Adonis s’oppose alors au corps ride de la servante. Thesis For Compare. C’est une composition tres forte, concue autour de lignes paralleles qui se repondent : d’une part, le carquois perche dans l’arbre, la lance pointee, les rayons du soleil percant a travers les nuages de ce ciel tres charge (la version de la National Gallery of doctora Art n’a pas ce jeu, mais un arc-en-ciel), et d’autre part un petit tronc d’arbre mis en valeur par le bras de Cupidon qui l’entoure, les corps des deux personnages et la tete du chien blanc. Or Curse Essay. Les personnages sont animes par un mouvement ferme et vigoureux, les chiens aussi, avec Cupidon endormi en contrepoint. Thesis. L’equilibre et la position precaires de Venus sont marques par un certain manierisme, ainsi que le modele des corps, le detail des coiffures et les jeux de lumieres qui les parcourent. Sleep In Macbeth Essay. Ce tableau aura une influence considerable et ce, pendant une tres longue periode. Fig. Doctora Thesis. 6 – Le Titien, Danae recevant la pluie d’or, vers 1533, Museo National del Prado, Madrid. Paolo Caliari, dit Paolo Veronese (1528 Verone, 1588 Venise), est, tout comme le Titien, l’un des grands maitres de son temps. Usm College. Il a commence son apprentissage chez un peintre de sa ville peu connu, Giovanni Caroto, mais qui le forma a la perspective, ce qui fut l’une de ses particularites. Doctora. Il s’installa definitivement a Venise en 1555. Annotated Bibliographies Apa. On connait ses grandes toiles sculpturales d’inspiration religieuse ( Les Noces de Cana, ou La Cene dont il a du modifier le titre apres un proces au tribunal de l’Inquisition), mais il a aussi compose un certain nombre de tableaux representant des scenes mythologiques, dont plusieurs Venus Adonis (fig.
7 et 8). Deux variations, Venus et Adonis avec petit amour et chiens   Localisation inconnue, env. Doctora Thesis. 1561-1563. Tv Boon Or Curse Essay. et Venus et Adonis   Musee d’Augsbourg, env. Thesis. 1564. Good For Compare Essay. sont des huiles de bonne taille, tres nettement influencees par les poesie du Titien produites quelques annees plus tot, tant dans la composition que dans le traitement des personnages. Doctora Thesis. En revanche, dans Venus Adonis avec petit amour et chiens   Et son pendant, Enlevement de Dejanire (fig. Tv Boon Or Curse. 10). Thesis. qui a donne lieu a des hesitations d’authentification, l’influence du Parmesan est tout aussi evidente que l’etait celle du Titien precedemment, bien que cette composition ait ete faite quelque quarante ans apres la mort du maitre.
La representation de la nature, les drapes, les corps, le detail de la chevelure sont de meme facture que celle des Amants dans un bois, par exemple. Une ultime representation, composee dans les memes annees 1580, donne une idee plus exacte des couleurs particulieres de Veronese. Tv Boon Essay. Dans un petit format intitule Venus Adonis endormi (fig. Doctora Thesis. 9)   Musee du Prado, env. Annotated Bibliographies. 1580. Doctora. il fait un grand usage de ces teintes pastel dont les nuances bleutees se repondent, des personnages au paysage, du riche vetement de Venus au ciel et a la lumiere portee sur les feuillages. Critical Essays On Hamlet's Madness. Ces derniers sont aussi inspires de l’art du Parmesan, bien longtemps apres sa mort. Doctora Thesis. C’est une composition en demi-cercle, dans laquelle tous les elements adoucissent l’impression d’ensemble : formes genereuses, mouvements en arrondi, douceur et calme du visage. Good Thesis For Compare Essay. C’est le seul tableau qui presente une version paisible de ce theme, avec Adonis, dans un equilibre precaire mais cependant confortable. Doctora. L’harmonie de la Renaissance est preservee, mais l’influence manieriste se fait sentir dans le traitement du paysage.
Fig. And Contrast Essay. 7 – Paul Veronese, Venus Adonis avec petit amour et chiens, env. Doctora. 1561, Kunstmuseum, Augsbourg. Fig. Good For Compare And Contrast. 8 – Paul Veronese, Venus Adonis avec petit amour et chiens, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. Fig. Doctora Thesis. 9 – Paul Veronese, Venus Adonis endormi, env. Or Curse. 1580, Museo National del Prado, Madrid. Fig. Thesis. 10 – Paul Veronese, Enlevement de Dejanire, env.
1580, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. L’influence italienne va essaimer dans beaucoup d’autres contrees, et prendre des colorations tres particulieres suivant l’art des peintres, le courant esthetique auquel ils se rattachent et aussi parfois le contexte politique et religieux plus ou moins contraignant dans lequel ils doivent elaborer leur commande. L’ecole flamande : vers le baroque sombre. Originaire d’Anvers ou il est ne en 1546, Bartholomeus Spranger « represente la derniere manifestation europeenne du manierisme fantastique »   Lionello Venturi, op. Thesis For Compare. cit., p. Doctora. 127. Usm College Essay. . Doctora Thesis. Il voyagea beaucoup et fut fort apprecie aussi bien a Rome que dans les cours de Vienne et de Prague ou il mourut en 1611. Bibliographies Apa. En 1565 il se rend a Paris ou il rencontre le Primatice et Niccolo dell’Abbate ; a Rome, vers 1567-1575, il devient l’assistant de Taddeo Zuccaro ; en 1570 il devient peintre du pape Pie V ; en 1575 il part pour Vienne ou il se met au service de l’empereur Maximilian II, et s’installe enfin a Prague aupres de l’empereur Rodolphe II. Thesis. Prague etait alors l’un des centres culturels et artistiques les plus importants d’Europe, et l’empereur avait rassemble des peintres, des sculpteurs et des orfevres qui developperent un style tres particulier. Sleep. Spranger etait l’un des inspirateurs, au meme titre que l’Allemand Hans von Aachen, et le Suisse Joseph Heintz. Thesis. Le Venus Adonis (fig.
11), qu’il a compose aux environs de 1592   Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (135 ? 109). Critical On Hamlet's. , est vraiment different par la composition tres elaboree et fantasmagorique du sujet. Thesis. Le milieu du tableau est occupe par un plan moyen d’un chateau perche sur un promontoire inaccessible, comprenant de nombreux volumes qui repondent aux arches du pont, et qui separe tres nettement les plans entre le proche et le lointain, ainsi que le ciel et cette foret peuplee de satyres et de nymphes. Usm College Essay. Les lignes et les volumes se repondent : aux pics lointains couverts de neige de forme triangulaire correspond le premier plan forme des personnages principaux flanques de Cupidon et des chiens. Thesis. La ligne serpentine determine la position des personnages et leur donne une tres forte dynamique ondulatoire. Or Curse Essay. Au plan moyen, cette ligne est rompue avec un tres grand art. Doctora Thesis. Le bras du satyre-tentateur ne rejoint pas celui de la femme, mais, entre leurs deux mains, se forme un espace privilegie qui encadre le fruit defendu dans sa chute. Tv Boon. Au premier plan, la composition des amants fait ressortir la puissance du mouvement.
Venus donne bel et bien l’impression d’etre l’initiatrice de la seduction d’Adonis par la ligne souple et flexible de ses contours et l’equilibre invraisemblable de son corps. Spranger est revenu sur ce theme dans un autre Venus Adonis (fig. Doctora Thesis. 12)   Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne (huile sur toile. Essay. dont la date est incertaine mais qui est suppose provenir de sa derniere periode creatrice. Doctora. Alors que les couleurs etaient fortement contrastees sur la premiere toile, elles sont ici beaucoup plus sombres, eclairant seulement la composition centrale, toujours triangulaire ; le paysage est tres peu visible et estompe. In Macbeth. C’est un gros plan sur les deux personnages, le bras de Venus est dans une position similaire mais accentuee, le chien, l’angelot ainsi que les deux colombes fixent un meme point hors champ mais sur la droite des spectateurs. Doctora. Adonis, qui porte chapeau et draperie rouges sur son armure, ne semble pas vraiment le farouche ephebe rebelle aux avances de la deesse ! Fig. In Macbeth Essay. 11 – Bartholomeus Spranger, Venus Adonis, vers 1592, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.. Il n’est pas etonnant que Pierre-Paul Rubens (1577-1640), sachant profiter des influences qu’il recevait au cours de ses nombreux voyages, mais composant selon une facture eminemment personnelle, s’attaquat a un tel theme. Thesis. Flamand ne en Allemagne ou servait son pere   « Jan Rubens, jurisconsulte, avait du fuir en 1568. Usm College Essay. , Rubens partit des 1600 pour l’Italie, ou il resta huit ans. Thesis. Tres vite sa position s’affirma, il obtint des commandes importantes provenant de differents pays. Thesis. En 1611, il s’installa a Anvers, attira de nombreux eleves (dont Jordaens et Van Dyck) et ouvrit un atelier tres creatif (ce qui pose, comme pour d’autres maitres, des problemes quant a l’attribution des ?uvres)   Le catalogue raisonne de ses ?uvres n’a pu encore. Doctora Thesis. . Essay. Il effectua de nombreux voyages de commandes et de missions diplomatiques : il vint a Paris trois fois entre 1622 et 1623 aupres de Marie de Medicis ; en 1628, il alla aupres de Philippe IV d’Espagne ou il fit des portraits, et des copies de Titien puis, la decennie suivante, le decor d’un pavillon de chasse sur le theme des Metamorphoses (peint a Anvers a partir de 1635) ; il decora la salle du Banquet a Whitehall, en 1634-1635, etc.
Fig. Thesis. 12 – Bartholomeus Spranger, Venus Adonis, non date, tardif, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. Il fit preuve d’une tres grande culture artistique, sachant imiter ou emprunter et, le cas echeant, se demarquant aussi. Or Curse Essay. Son Venus Adonis   Consulte sur internet hhttp :// wwwwww. Doctora Thesis. ludweb. Critical. com/. Thesis. est tres nettement dans la veine du Titien, la composition en est quasiment reproduite selon un axe de symetrie des deux personnages centraux, mais inverses, Venus nue assise attirant Adonis, en manteau rouge, la lance a la main (mais la symetrie est faussee car la lance se trouve aussi a gauche du tableau, ici tenue par la main gauche), devance par un chien gris et blanc. In Macbeth. Le carquois et l’arc de Cupidon gisent a terre (dans le tableau du Titien ils etaient suspendus dans l’arbre, a gauche), le paysage au ciel tres gris s’eclaircit dans le lointain. Doctora Thesis. Il y a aussi une inspiration des techniques caravagesques pour les rendus de la peau, juxtaposant l’ocre et la couleur claire, et utilisant le clair-obscur. Essays On Hamlet's Madness. Mais l’art de Rubens se demarque de tout autre par les formes surabondantes de ses sujets, Venus selon une ligne serpentine, Adonis avec un corps muscle et massif, ainsi que par la juxtaposition du mouvement et de la rectitude pour une composition sculpturale qui s’etablit autour d’une ligne diagonale descendante et de lignes droites. Abraham Janssens (1573-1632), peintre anversois, va pour un temps, d’une certaine facon, se poser en rival de Rubens. Thesis. Apres une premiere formation, vers 1584-1585, chez Jan Snellinck, peintre d’histoire italianisant dans la veine de Martin de Vos, il va des 1598 et donc bien avant Rubens, a Rome ou il reside jusqu’en 1601, date de son admission dans la guilde d’Anvers comme franc-maitre. Critical On Hamlet's. Il est specialise dans la peinture d’histoire, les sujets religieux, les allegories, les nudites mythologiques dont fait partie son Venus Adonis (fig. Doctora Thesis. 13)   Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, non date. Good Thesis For Compare And Contrast Essay. . Doctora Thesis. Le style est composite, a la fois dur et froid, les eclairages sont violents et sans nuance, les formes sculpturales.
Il se rattache donc a la tradition caravagesque dans les visages impassibles et enigmatiques et les postures figees, comme par exemple le bras d’Adonis reste en suspens. Tv Boon. Venus a de fines boucles blondes, Adonis a les cheveux de jais. Thesis. Venus est a demi nue, ses formes sont harmonieuses, pas aussi genereuses que chez les autres Flamands, sa robe rouge aux bordures richement decorees rappelle le lacet des chaussures d’Adonis. Madness. Sa peau de lait contraste avec le teint plus fonce d’Adonis derriere elle (qui donne une idee de la profondeur), avec l’ombre de l’arbre qui forme un deuxieme plan central, avec le vetement noir aux manches a creve d’epoque et le long drape sombre d’Adonis qui lui procure un appui, donc un equilibre. Thesis. Dans son gout du nu et des effets de contrastes de chairs eclairees, Janssens s’apparente plutot au manierisme de Prague ou de Haarlem. Fig. Sleep Imagery In Macbeth. 13 – Abraham Janssens, Venus Adonis, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. D’une certaine facon, ces contrastes de couleurs annoncent le peintre anversois Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678). Thesis. D’abord sous l’influence de Rubens, il se posa en veritable rival du maitre, et apres la mort de celui-ci, il devient le plus grand peintre d’Anvers. Critical Essays Madness. Il s’est fait une reputation de peintre de scenes de la vie quotidienne (Les jeunes piaillent, les vieux chantent) . Doctora Thesis. Malgre son attachement au protestantisme, on tv boon, lui a passe commande de tableaux religieux (La Sainte Famille, dont il fait plusieurs versions au cours de sa carriere, La Crucifixion, L’Adoration des Mages).
On pourrait aisement comparer La Sainte Famille, qui comporte deux enfants face a face, avec un premier Venus Adonis   Ces deux tableaux sont au Musee royal de Bruxelle. Doctora Thesis. . Creative Writing Summer Massachusetts. Dans chacune de ces compositions, un personnage est represente de dos, en position assise – l’un des enfants et Venus –, si bien que la ligne du dos forme un large arrondi d’un cote et de nombreux replis de chair de l’autre. Thesis. Une autre peinture sur le meme theme etait inseree dans le plafond d’une maison du XVIII e siecle, maintenant demolie, dans une rue du quartier ouest de Londres (Wigmore Street)   Consulte sur internet, site indique. Essay. . Doctora. C’est un gros plan sur les deux personnages monumentaux, l’un et l’autre nus, ce qui met en valeur les lourds bijoux de Venus ainsi que les armes d’Adonis : ils ont chacun les attributs de leur fonction. Usm College. De meme que pour les peintres precedents, on doctora thesis, remarque ces differences de teintes entre les deux peaux, si bien que, dans un tres fort emploi du clair-obscur, Adonis s’estompe dans l’ombre. Imagery. Les formes sont genereuses, les corps enlaces. Doctora Thesis. Ils degagent une grande sensualite, Adonis est completement abandonne, soumis aux lois de la deesse a l’attitude dominatrice. Thesis For Compare. Le mouvement d’enfermement produit par l’enlacement des bras autour d’Adonis est amplifie par le drape rouge aux nuances lumineuses que l’Amour s’apprete a disposer autour du couple. Thesis. A la ligne en courbe qui forme le dos de Venus repond la diagonale de la lance d’Adonis. En Italie, le theme attire toujours les peintres comme par le passe, mais la veine d’inspiration et le style d’execution procedent maintenant d’un tout autre esprit. Critical Essays On Hamlet's Madness. Francesco Albani (1578-1660), originaire de Bologne, ayant travaille dans l’atelier des Carrache a Rome ou il peignait des fresques et des motifs religieux, a compose un bien tendre sujet, Adonis conduit pres de Venus ou l’eau (fig. Doctora. 14)   Musee du Louvre, env. Creative Summer Camps. 1621-1623. Thesis. . Essays Madness. Il offre une vision tres suave du domaine de la foret qui devient ici celui de Venus endormie (ce qui n’est pas du tout une conception habituelle).
Les angelots forment une ribambelle pleine de charme qui va s’accrocher dans les arbres, ils proposent ainsi un autre moyen de transport dans les airs. Thesis. Tout est harmonie et douceur dans ce cadre allegorique teinte d’angelisme. Par comparaison, la veine espagnole se distingue par une palette de couleurs beaucoup plus intense, a l’aube du siecle d’or. Summer. On pourra rapprocher deux tableaux de Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652) qui sont presque contemporains et qui datent de sa periode faste : Venus Adonis, peint en 1637, l’une de ses « ?uvres paiennes les plus emouvantes »   Jeanne Baticle, Alain Roy, L’art baroque, Histoire. Thesis. et L’Immaculee Conception, qui date de 1635, une ?uvre chretienne de la Contre-Reforme, placee au centre du grand retable de marbre eleve par l’Italien Fanzago au maitre-autel de l’eglise des Augustines de Salamanque   Le comte de Monterrey, vice-roi de Naples, lui avait. Camps Massachusetts. : Cette derniere ?uvre compte parmi les plus celebres de l’art espagnol et elle apporte en quelque sorte la premiere grande version baroque d’un theme privilegie par les maitres hispaniques. Doctora.   A l’epoque baroque, Ribera a ete l’un des plus efficaces. Fig. Bibliographies Apa. 14 – Francesco Albani (Albane), Adonis conduit pres de Venus ou l’eau, 1621-1623, Louvre. Jusepe de Ribera a sans doute commence sa formation a Valence, puis l’a poursuivie a Rome, entre 1613 et 1616, ou il frequenta les ?uvres du Caravage et de ses disciples. Doctora Thesis. Il se rendit ensuite a Naples, alors possession espagnole, et devint la figure majeure du milieu artistique napolitain.
On peut constater une construction tres rigoureuse, mais monumentale, selon une diagonale qui part de Venus en haut a gauche du tableau et descend vers le visage d’Adonis au sol, avec, au premier plan tres peu visible, la lance placee en parallele, la pointe tournee vers le bas, alors que L’Immaculee Conception s’etablit, evidemment, selon une ligne verticale partant de la croix en argent richement ornee jusqu’a la Vierge que surmontent une discrete couronne d’etoiles dorees, qui se fondent dans le ciel, et la colombe representant le Saint-Esprit. Annotated Bibliographies. De tres nombreux arrondis se repondent et se reprennent selon un axe de symetrie : le voilage de Venus, les grosses branches sombres dans les nuages, puis les branches maitresses, l’arc des jambes de Venus, avec en symetrie la ligne du sol, et reproduite dans la position d’Adonis, la ligne courbe des jambes et des hanches, et au-dela, celle des bras et des epaules. Doctora Thesis. Ribera utilise une palette de couleurs tres denses : en effet, Venus Adonis est plonge dans des tonalites sombres, mais il y manque de toute evidence l’eclairage lumineux de la vision mystique. Bibliographies. Le ciel est mouvemente, parcouru de nuees qui prefigurent le malheur, c’est un paysage ferme, englouti par les ombres, dont l’arriere-plan flou n’offre pas de miracle vers le ciel glorieux comme dans l’autre tableau. Thesis. A part les personnages principaux, il n’y a qu’un seul autre sujet : le chien fidelement place derriere le corps inerte d’Adonis, mais il est tres peu visible, a la difference de cette profusion d’angelots et d’anges en priere qui elevent le nuage sur lequel se trouve Marie, et aussi d’elements symboliques du decor – une tour en bas, en arriere-plan, et la coupole de Saint-Pierre de Rome a mi-chemin des nuages, qui lient le ciel et la terre. Usm College Essay. Les amples drapes aux couleurs emblematiques sont agences selon la disposition traditionnelle devolue a la mere du Christ : blanc pour la sous-robe couvrante, bleu fonce pour la robe ou le vaste manteau. Doctora Thesis. La difference tient au degre de luminosite du bleu utilise, plus terne pour que Venus ne detourne pas du sujet principal.
Le voile rose de Venus est parcouru d’un mouvement aerien, de meme que le manteau de la Vierge, s’opposant ainsi a l’inertie du corps d’Adonis, qui repose en pleine lumiere sur son manteau rouge vif, largement etale. Writing. Le tableau religieux comporte aussi, en diagonale basse, un drape rouge mais peu voyant par effet de contraste. Thesis. Veritable apparition, Venus semble flotter dans les airs, comme la Vierge, avec un elegant mouvement des bras et des mains ; elle a aussi une longue chevelure blonde et ondulee, qui est rehaussee, elle, par une fraiche couronne de fleurs, qui ressemble au bouquet arbore par un angelot. Usm College. C’est une vision tres lenifiante, suave, mais tres forte, empreinte d’un certain sens quasi mystique de ce mythe. Doctora. Contrairement aux reserves que l’on a pu emettre precedemment, la correspondance avec l’inspiration religieuse ne fait ici pas de doute. L’ecole francaise : vers le classicisme. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) est le plus grand representant du courant francais. Imagery In Macbeth. Ne aux Andelys, en Normandie, Nicolas Poussin a d’abord etudie a Rouen, puis a Paris. Doctora Thesis. Mais bien vite, en 1624, il part pour l’Italie, a Venise d’abord pour etudier les ?uvres du Titien, puis a Rome ou il obtient la protection du cardinal Francesco Barberini et d’autres mecenes. Or Curse. C’est la qu’il accomplit son grand ?uvre, mis a part un voyage « force » en France en 1640 car Louis XIV aurait voulu faire de lui un peintre de la cour. Doctora Thesis. A l’approche de la cinquantaine, sa main commence a trembler. Usm College. Lorsqu’il dessine, il doit proceder par breves virgules et traits griffes : il ne peut plus tracer une ligne droite   « Ne pouvant plus modeler, il s’eloigne entierement. Doctora. . Madness. Il a compose de nombreux cycles historiques et mythologiques, Coriolan, Quatre Bacchanales, Le Triomphe de Neptune, ainsi que religieux Les Sacrements, Moise sauve des Eaux . Thesis. Il s’est essaye plusieurs fois a ce theme de Venus et Adonis, certains tableaux ayant connu des vicissitudes, comme cette huile sur toile representant un Paysage avec Venus et Adonis coupe en deux parties inegales, maintenant reunies au musee de Montpellier   Attribution que le critique Anthony Blunt considere. Thesis For Compare And Contrast. , ou ces tableaux ou gravures « attribues mais non reconnus ». Doctora Thesis. Les dessins, les plumes et lavis brun ont ete abondamment copies dans la suite, par souci d’apprentissage ou par mode.
Dans sa premiere toile datant des annees 1625-1626, inspiree de L’Adone du Cavalier Marin (1623) et gravee par Richard Earlom en 1766   Jacques Thuillier, op. Annotated. cit., p. Doctora Thesis. 51. Bibliographies. , Poussin explore le theme des amours heureuses ; en revanche, dans La Mort d’Adonis (fig. Thesis. 15)   Musee des Beaux-Arts de Caen, env. Sleep Essay. 1626-1627. Doctora. , il s’inspire fidelement du denouement tragique d’Ovide : « . Tv Boon Or Curse. elle repand sur le sang du jeune homme un nectar embaume ; a ce contact, il bouillonne comme les bulles transparentes. Doctora. »   Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, X, 730, op. Imagery. cit., p. Doctora Thesis. 34. Tv Boon Or Curse Essay. . Doctora. En effet, c’est un des rares tableaux sur ce theme qui comporte quelques traces de sang sur le sol, au premier plan. Bibliographies. Cette composition est centree autour d’un monticule forme de troncs d’arbres et du char de Venus, qui assombrissent le tableau et masquent le ciel tres nettement separe en deux : crepusculaire a gauche et bleute a droite. Thesis. Les lignes de force sont paralleles et forment autant de diagonales ascendantes : le bord du monticule, un homme endormi indifferencie et le char, les troncs d’arbre, les deux jambes d’Adonis, le vase, la lance. In Macbeth Essay. On remarquera la position d’Adonis, bras en croix, la tete tournee vers le cote droit, representant le ciel, vetu d’une tunique (et de sandales assorties) de ce bleu lumineux si caracteristique de Poussin.
Fig. Doctora Thesis. 15 – Nicolas Poussin, La Mort d’Adonis, 1627, Musee des Beaux-Arts de Caen, Martine Seyve photographe. Cela vaut la peine de faire un rapprochement entre les personnages centraux de ce tableau et ceux de deux autres tableaux, La Lamentation sur le Christ mort (fig. Bibliographies Apa. 16) (compose vers ces memes annees 1626-1627) ainsi que Echo et Narcisse (fig. Thesis. 17), peint vers 1627. And Contrast. Le jeu des quatre couleurs est repris dans les drapes : rouge vif, ocre, blanc et bleu. Thesis. Venus et Marie sont pareillement placees, penchees au-dessus du corps.
Cependant, le Christ est en position inverse, pour rappeler les paroles de l’ecriture « il est descendu aux enfers ». Writing. mais une tres forte diagonale ascendante annonce la suite : « le troisieme jour est ressuscite des morts ». Doctora Thesis. En revanche, mis a part quelques lignes obliques dans un arriere-plan, Narcisse git a terre completement allonge, tete tournee vers la gauche qui n’offre pas de Redemption. Annotated. Il a la tete parmi des fleurs, dans la nature : sont-ce des anemones, comme dans Ovide ? Ces comparaisons montrent sans doute la preoccupation de Poussin pour la mort et l’au-dela. Thesis. A cette epoque, on essays on hamlet's, a parle de son pessimisme et de son agnosticisme. Doctora Thesis. Ce qui est sur, c’est la convergence de composition en lignes de force tres symboliques et la palette de couleurs entre ses differents sujets, qu’ils soient d’inspiration mythique, mythologique ou religieuse. Bibliographies. On sait l’importance de Poussin dans le developpement du « classicisme a la francaise », ainsi que son influence par-dela les frontieres. Fig. Doctora. 17 – Nicolas Poussin, Echo et Narcisse, Louvre. Fig. Tv Boon Or Curse. 18 – Laurent de La Hyre, Adonis mort et son chien, Louvre. Fig.
19 – Francois Verdier, La Naissance d’Adonis, 1698, Versailles, cliche RMN. Laurent de La Hyre (1606-1656), peintre et dessinateur parisien, a intitule sa composition Adonis mort et son chien (fig. Doctora. 18)   Huile sur toile non datee, recemment acquise par le. Usm College. . Thesis. Fils du peintre Etienne de La Hyre, l’un des douze membres fondateurs de l’Academie royale de peinture en 1648, Laurent de La Hyre s’est d’abord forme au manierisme a partir des collections de Fontainebleau de Rosso et du Primatice, sans etre jamais alle en Italie. Usm College. Il a compose des toiles d’inspiration religieuse qui furent remarquees. Doctora Thesis. Mais, ensuite, il a subi l’influence de l’art baroque au contact des peintres francais alles a Rome vers 1625-1630, dont Nicolas Poussin. Sleep Essay. Son tableau se presente comme un fragment de paysage dont le sujet principal, situe en gros plan, depasse le cadre de la toile (coude gauche et boucles blondes). Doctora. Le paysage compose d’un entrelacs de gros troncs a gauche assure un arriere-plan sombre qui met en valeur la luminosite du corps d’Adonis etendu. Good Thesis And Contrast. Les quelques branches vont presque toucher les arbres situes dans les differents arriere-plans a droite, refermant ainsi le sujet dans une nature composee de courbes legeres qui se poursuit jusque dans le lointain et qui renvoie l’echo de la solitude complete. Thesis. Allonge sur l’arme avec laquelle il a frappe le sanglier d’un coup qui s’est retourne contre lui-meme, Adonis git la tete vers les spectateurs, le bras droit etendu, comme s’il etait en croix   Le dernier tableau de La Hyre, datant de 1655, est. Annotated Bibliographies Apa. , avec pour tout pleureur, son chien fidele assis a ses pieds, la tete basse, tournee a l’oppose. Doctora Thesis. Les drapes sont de couleurs tres caracteristiques : le blanc indique l’innocence bafouee, et le rouge vif, veritable metonymie chromatique, rappelle la couleur du sang le plus pur sacrifie. Creative Writing Massachusetts. La symbolique christique est clairement etablie.
Le dernier tableau que je souhaiterais aborder est celui de Francois Verdier (1652-1730) qui a compose une Naissance d’Adonis (fig. Doctora Thesis. 19)   Chateau de Versailles et du Trianon. Or Curse Essay. en 1698, juste dans le XVII e siecle finissant. Thesis. Il s’agit d’un sujet bien etrange, que j’ai mentionne dans l’introduction et qui s’apparente a une « Sainte Famille ». Usm College Essay. Ce peintre n’en est pas a son premier tableau relatant le conte des Metamorphoses, et il a laisse plusieurs tableaux anterieurs de grand format   (Env. Doctora Thesis. 220 ? 150). Sleep. sur ce theme, Venus veut empecher Adonis d’aller a la chasse (1695), Venus sur un nuage apparait a Adonis (1688). Doctora. La composition du tableau qui nous concerne est tres sombre, mais l’on peut distinguer, a droite, cet arbre curieux en forme de tete humaine qui illustre le debut de la fable : « Celui qui etait fils de sa s?ur et de son grand-pere, qui naguere avait ete enferme dans un arbre ». Tv Boon Or Curse. Au premier plan, c’est une belle naiade a la chevelure defaite qui presente l’urne remplie d’eau, a mi-chemin entre la toilette et le bapteme.
Les deux personnages derriere elle sont en fait deux satyres grimacants qui troublent la serenite de la scene mais qui, eux aussi, comme le tronc d’arbre, indiquent bien le caractere ambigu de la representation. Thesis. Tout impregne des meandres du texte ovidien, Verdier depasse la representation classique. Usm College. On se penche a present vers un baroque allegorique et grimacant. Doctora Thesis. Le XVII e siecle est bel et bien termine. De ce parcours tres parcellaire vu la plethore de references, on thesis for compare essay, peut cependant degager quelques constantes. Doctora. Si la Renaissance privilegie le theme des amours malheureuses et represente plutot la mort du jeune homme, le baroque decline une nudite aux formes abondantes selon la ligne serpentine, centree sur le couple mene par une Venus sollicitante.
Ce theme inspira de tres nombreux artistes de differentes regions qui adapterent la composition – qui prenait sa source dans les ecoles italiennes – a la sensibilite de leur pays et de leur temps. Camps. C’est ainsi que de tres grandes divergences de ton et de style commencerent a apparaitre. Doctora. Une sensualite tres lascive se degage de certains tableaux qu’un recipiendaire isole peut admirer dans la solitude, quel que soit son degre de piete et d’austerite, comme Philippe II d’Espagne, par exemple. Summer Camps. Et meme dans un contexte de forte pression morale et religieuse concernant la decence dans l’art, la correspondance s’impose entre le traitement pictural, par les memes peintres, de ce theme mythologique et les tableaux d’inspiration religieuse, prevus, eux, pour un vaste auditoire. Doctora. De Martin de Vos, le peintre flamand de la fin du XVI e siecle, avec sa composition en pieta, a Nicolas Poussin, le Normand installe a Rome en plein XVII e siecle, en passant par Josepe de Ribera, gloire artistique du siecle d’or espagnol, les peintres utilisent parfois les memes regles de composition dans leurs tableaux religieux et dans cette representation mythologique, pratiquant une unite de style dans leur creation, meme si leur palette de couleurs subit une difference d’intensite, et conferant quasiment a Venus un statut de Madone chretienne. Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, traduction de Georges Lafaye, Paris, Gallimard, « Folio Classique », 1992, livre X, 511-540, p. Essay. 339-340. Pierre de Ronsard, « Adonis », elegie de 368 vers publiee en 1564 dans le Recueil des Nouvelles Poesies, passee dans sa section dans les ?uvres de 1567. Doctora Thesis. Le dedicataire est Pierre de Fictes « de la Chambre aux deniers du roy » puis conseiller et tresorier de l’Epargne. Tv Boon Or Curse. « Le poeme resulte de la contamination d’une metamorphose d’Ovide, d’une idylle de Bion et de fragments d’une eglogue d’Andrea Navagero », dans Pierre de Ronsard, ?uvres completes, Paris, Gallimard, « La Pleiade », 1994, vol.
II, n. Doctora Thesis. 1, p. Good Thesis For Compare. 1397. Jean de La Fontaine, ?uvres diverses, Paris, Gallimard, « La Pleiade », 1958, vol. Thesis. 2, p. Sleep. 3-19. 28, 29, 30 janvier 1999, auditorium du Louvre. Tiziano, catalogo della Mostra, Palazzo Ducale, Venezia, National Gallery Washington, Venezia, Marsilio, 1990. Doctora Thesis. Edition francaise, Titien, Paris, Liana Levi, 1990, « Index alphabetique des ?uvres ». Conservee a la Galerie Borghese a Rome (huile sur toile datant de 1514, 118 ? 279). Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, op. Annotated. cit. Ceci donna lieu a de celebres confusions au cours des siecles concernant l’attribution des peintures, puisque tel un palimpseste, il y avait eu superposition de couches de peinture, selon la technique de la detrempe, provenant de pinceaux a la facture tres differenciee.
Voir Tout l’?uvre peint de Michel-Ange (Milan, 1966), edition francaise, Paris, Flammarion, « Les Classiques de l’art », 1986, p. Doctora. 108 sq . Detrempe sur toile (172 ? 278) datee aux alentours de 1483-1485, Palais Pitti, Galerie des Offices, Florence. Guilio Carlo Argan, Botticelli (1957), traduit de l’italien par Rosabianca Skira-Venturi, Geneve, Skira, 1989, p. Creative Camps. 10. National Gallery, Londres. Georges Lafenestre, La peinture italienne, Paris, A. Doctora. Quantin, 1885, livre 3, chap. Annotated Apa. 7, p. Doctora. 211-237. Encyclopedia Universalis, 1990, vol. Good For Compare And Contrast. 14, p. Doctora. 447. Cecil Gould, Parmesan (1994), traduit par Xavier Carrere, New York, Paris, Londres, Abbeville Press, 1995, p. Essay. 18. Il se refugia a Bologne apres avoir fui Rome en 1527, Cecil Gould, op. Doctora Thesis. cit., p. Annotated. 83.
1553-1540, Galerie des Offices, Florence. Bernhard Berenson, Les peintres italiens de la Renaissance, traduction de Louis Gillet, Paris, Gallimard, 1935, p. Thesis. 56. Peinture a l’huile sur toile (189 ? 285), Salle des Allegories, Palais Pitti, Florence. Caterina Caneva, Aless Cecchi, Antonio Natali, Les Offices, Guide des Collections et catalogue des peintures, Becocci, Scala, 1987, p. Annotated Apa. 138-141. Musee du Louvre. Musee du Louvre. Il composa lui aussi une peinture sur le theme de La mort d’Adonis, qui se trouve dans la Galerie Francois I er du chateau de Fontainebleau. Lionello Venturi, La peinture de la Renaissance de Bruegel au Greco, Geneve, Skira, 1956, Paris, Flammarion, 1979, p. Doctora Thesis. 118.
(53 ? 42), deuxieme moitie du XVI e s., Musee du Louvre. National Gallery of usm college Art, Washington DC ; Bibliotheque Forney, Fonds iconographique, « Titien », image 31, huile sur toile (106,8 ? 136). (186 ? 207), vers 1551-1554, Le Prado, Madrid. Egalement au Musee du Prado, Madrid (128 ? 180). Doctora. Certainement achevee « avant d’aller voir Philippe II a Augsbourg, meme si on annotated bibliographies, lui attribue generalement une date posterieure » ( Titien, op. Doctora. cit., p. Essays On Hamlet's. 82). Musee de Boston.
Localisation inconnue, env. Thesis. 1561-1563. Musee d’Augsbourg, env. Good Thesis For Compare Essay. 1564. Et son pendant, Enlevement de Dejanire (fig. Doctora Thesis. 10), tous deux env. Writing Camps. 1580 et taille reduite (68 ? 53). Musee du Prado, env.
1580. Lionello Venturi, op. Doctora Thesis. cit., p. Sleep In Macbeth Essay. 127. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (135 ? 109). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne (huile sur toile, 163 ? 104,3). « Jan Rubens, jurisconsulte, avait du fuir en 1568 les Pays-Bas a cause de troubles politico-religieux et de ses propres sympathies pour la Reforme et s’etait etabli a Cologne. Thesis. Accuse d’adultere [. Writing Massachusetts. ], il avait ete emprisonne deux ans puis exile [. Doctora. ] il revint s’etablir a Cologne peu apres la naissance de Pierre Paul, ou il mourut en 1587. Or Curse. Au debut de 1589, la mere de Rubens regagna Anvers » (Jacques Foucart, Encyclopedia Universalis, vol. Thesis. 20, 1990, p. Essays On Hamlet's. 337). Le catalogue raisonne de ses ?uvres n’a pu encore etre acheve, en raison de tres nombreuses decouvertes a differentes epoques, et des factures si particulieres decelables dans un meme tableau. Consulte sur internet h http :// w w w www. Thesis. ludweb. Or Curse. com/ poetry/ venus, date et provenance non precisees.
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, non date. Ces deux tableaux sont au Musee royal de Bruxelles. Consulte sur internet, site indique. Musee du Louvre, env. Doctora Thesis. 1621-1623. Jeanne Baticle, Alain Roy, L’art baroque, Histoire universelle de la peinture, Geneve, Famot, p. Annotated. 56-68. Le comte de Monterrey, vice-roi de Naples, lui avait egalement commande, en 1633-1634, une Pieta, voir L’art baroque, op. Thesis. cit. A l’epoque baroque, Ribera a ete l’un des plus efficaces propagandistes de la Contre-Reforme, qui privilegie le role de la Vierge : « A l’Annonciation et la Vierge et l’Enfant, toujours essentielles, est adjointe a la fin du XVI e siecle l’Immaculee Conception, dont la representation typologique a ete fixee par le cavalier d’Arpin entre 1600 et 1610 et qui connaitra une grande vogue au XVII e siecle ». « Ne pouvant plus modeler, il s’eloigne entierement des techniques en usage.
De plus en plus, il depose du bout d’une brosse dure, a la place choisie, une touche calculee pour correspondre tout ensemble a la couleur et a la valeur. Writing Camps Massachusetts. A distance normale, tout se fond ; mais l’imprecision meme de cette touche, plus ou moins grasse, plus ou moins large, introduit une sorte de vibration qui delecte la vue » (Jacques Thuillier, Poussin, Paris, Flammarion, 1994, p. Doctora Thesis. 78). Attribution que le critique Anthony Blunt considere comme douteuse, The Drawings of good essay Poussin, Yale University Press, 1979, Les dessins de Poussin, traduit par Solange Schnall, Hazan, coll. Thesis. « 35/37 », 1988, p. On Hamlet's Madness. 244-245. Jacques Thuillier, op. Thesis. cit., p. Apa. 51. Musee des Beaux-Arts de Caen, env. Thesis. 1626-1627. Huile sur toile non datee, recemment acquise par le Musee du Louvre. Le dernier tableau de La Hyre, datant de 1655, est une Descente de Croix, conservee au Musee de Rouen, marquee par de fortes lignes marron sombre obliques.
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Washington’s Farewell Address 1796. Friends and Citizens: The period for a new election of doctora thesis a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made. I beg you, at sleep, the same time, to doctora thesis, do me the justice to bibliographies apa, be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of doctora thesis service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by sleep in macbeth essay no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both. The acceptance of, and thesis continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to good and contrast, return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea. I rejoice that the doctora thesis state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire. The impressions with which I first undertook the creative writing summer camps massachusetts arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. Doctora! In the discharge of this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and administration of the annotated bibliographies apa government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. Thesis! Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the tv boon increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the thesis shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome.
Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to essay, my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in doctora thesis, our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of or curse essay criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by doctora which they were effected. Usm College! Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and thesis brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the creative writing people of these States, under the doctora auspices of liberty, may be made complete by bibliographies apa so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of doctora this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of annotated bibliographies apa recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it. Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to thesis, your solemn contemplation, and to good thesis and contrast essay, recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of doctora thesis much reflection, of essay no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the permanency of thesis your felicity as a people.
These will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of essay mine is doctora thesis necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment. The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of critical essays madness your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to doctora, foresee that, from different causes and sleep from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the thesis immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to essay, it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of doctora thesis your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to creative summer camps, enfeeble the doctora sacred ties which now link together the various parts.
For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to critical essays madness, you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and doctora thesis triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of annotated common dangers, sufferings, and successes. But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole. The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by thesis the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the good for compare essay North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and thesis increase the general mass of the tv boon essay national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted.
The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of doctora thesis necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the tv boon Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in doctora thesis, union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in essay, the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from doctora thesis, those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to usm college essay, produce, but which opposite thesis foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to creative summer massachusetts, liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the thesis other. These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and good essay virtuous mind, and doctora exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Creative Camps Massachusetts! Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to mere speculation in such a case were criminal.
We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the thesis whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. Sleep Imagery In Macbeth! It is well worth a fair and full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of thesis those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. In contemplating the good thesis and contrast essay causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. Doctora Thesis! One of the expedients of party to annotated bibliographies apa, acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and doctora aims of other districts.
You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on imagery this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in doctora, the universal satisfaction at and contrast essay, that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in doctora, the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens? To the efficacy and on hamlet's madness permanency of your Union, a government for thesis, the whole is indispensable. Tv Boon Or Curse! No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of thesis government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for critical essays madness, the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for doctora thesis, its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.
The basis of our political systems is the right of the imagery in macbeth people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But the doctora Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the usm college duty of every individual to thesis, obey the established government. All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to usm college, direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to doctora, the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the usm college public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests. However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the thesis reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to good thesis, unjust dominion. Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only thesis that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the camps pretexts. One method of doctora assault may be to in macbeth essay, effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown.
In all the thesis changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to or curse essay, fix the true character of governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the doctora surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the creative writing summer existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and doctora opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. On Hamlet's! Liberty itself will find in thesis, such a government, with powers properly distributed and essay adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble to doctora, withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the critical essays on hamlet's madness society within the limits prescribed by thesis the laws, and to good for compare and contrast essay, maintain all in the secure and doctora thesis tranquil enjoyment of the annotated apa rights of person and property. I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to thesis, the founding of good them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in doctora, the most solemn manner against creative writing camps, the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally. This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in doctora thesis, the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and critical is truly their worst enemy. The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in doctora thesis, different ages and or curse essay countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.
The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the doctora chief of writing camps some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty. Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it. It serves always to thesis, distract the tv boon or curse public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. Thesis! It opens the door to creative writing camps, foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of doctora party passions.
Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to essays madness, the policy and will of another. There is an doctora thesis, opinion that parties in or curse essay, free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in thesis, governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the good thesis for compare essay effort ought to be by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. Doctora! A fire not to sleep, be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume. It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to doctora, encroach upon another.
The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of essay all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. Thesis! The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by good for compare and contrast dividing and distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to doctora thesis, institute them. Good! If, in the opinion of the people, the doctora distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for essay, though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the doctora thesis use can at tv boon or curse, any time yield. Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. Doctora! In vain would that man claim the tribute of tv boon or curse essay patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them.
A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the thesis supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of apa refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to thesis, expect that national morality can prevail in essays, exclusion of religious principle. It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the doctora thesis fabric? Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of essays madness knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to doctora thesis, public opinion, it is usm college essential that public opinion should be enlightened. As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit.
One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to thesis, prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of annotated debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is doctora essential that you should practically bear in mind that towards the payment of critical on hamlet's madness debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the doctora intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the selection of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in or curse, the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at any time dictate. Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it – It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at thesis, no distant period, a great nation, to critical essays madness, give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and doctora things, the annotated bibliographies apa fruits of doctora such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at annotated apa, least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature.
Alas! is doctora thesis it rendered impossible by its vices? In the for compare and contrast execution of thesis such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against or curse essay, particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. Doctora Thesis! The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of annotated bibliographies which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Doctora Thesis! Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of or curse slight causes of umbrage, and to thesis, be haughty and summer camps intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of thesis dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to usm college, war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of thesis hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the victim. So likewise, a passionate attachment of in macbeth one nation for another produces a variety of evils. Doctora Thesis! Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the good thesis for compare essay former into a participation in doctora thesis, the quarrels and creative summer massachusetts wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification.
It leads also to concessions to thesis, the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and and contrast essay a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation. As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to doctora thesis, the truly enlightened and essays independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the doctora arts of critical essays on hamlet's seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils. Such an attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the doctora latter. Against the insidious wiles of annotated foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of doctora thesis a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of usm college essay a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on doctora thesis one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to and contrast essay, become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and doctora confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. The great rule of conduct for us in in macbeth, regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.
Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of thesis her politics, or the annotated ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to thesis, pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the sleep in macbeth essay neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by thesis justice, shall counsel. Why forego the advantages of usm college essay so peculiar a situation?
Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of doctora European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice? It is good thesis for compare and contrast our true policy to doctora, steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at good thesis and contrast, liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to doctora thesis, private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is summer massachusetts unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them. Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on thesis a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and creative writing interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and doctora thesis diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to critical essays on hamlet's madness, be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is doctora folly in one nation to tv boon, look for thesis, disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to essay, discard.
In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an doctora thesis, old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of imagery essay foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by which they have been dictated. How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidence of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of doctora thesis my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to in macbeth, be guided by them. In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of doctora thesis April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by sleep in macbeth essay your approving voice, and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to thesis, take, and was bound in duty and interest to annotated apa, take, a neutral position.
Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to doctora, my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all. The duty of for compare essay holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the doctora thesis obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to apa, maintain inviolate the thesis relations of peace and amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of tv boon or curse essay its own fortunes. Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of doctora my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Madness! Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the doctora Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. For Compare And Contrast Essay! I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an thesis, upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to usm college, oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.
Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to doctora, a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to thesis for compare and contrast essay, realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of doctora partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD AND THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE. William Craig earned a doctorate in philosophy at essay, the University of Birmingham, England, before taking a doctorate in theology from the Ludwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany, at which latter institution he was for two years a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. He is currently a visiting scholar at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. He has authored various books, including The Kalam Cosmological Argument, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to doctora, Leibniz, and The Problem of Divine Foreknowledge and Future Contingents from Aristotle to Suarez , as well as articles in professional journals like British Journal for the Philosophy of bibliographies apa Science , Zeitschrift fur Philosophische Forschung , Australasian Journal of Philosophy , and Philosophia . The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to exist, demonstrates that the world is not a necessary being and, therefore, not self-explanatory with respect to its existence. Two philosophical arguments and doctora two scientific confirmations are presented in support of the beginning of the universe.
Since whatever begins to exist has a cause, there must exist a transcendent cause of the universe. Source: “The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe.” Truth: A Journal of Modern Thought 3 (1991): 85-96. “The first question which should rightly be asked,” wrote G.W.F. Leibniz, is “ Why is there something rather than nothing ?” This question does seem to possess a profound existential force, which has been felt by some of mankind’s greatest thinkers. And Contrast! According to Aristotle, philosophy begins with a sense of wonder about the world, and the most profound question a man can ask concerns the origin of the universe. In his biography of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Norman Malcolm reports that Wittgenstein said that he sometimes had a certain experience which could best be described by thesis saying that “when I have it, I wonder at the existence of the world . I am then inclined to creative writing summer massachusetts, use such phrases as ‘How extraordinary that anything should exist!'” Similarly, one contemporary philosopher remarks, “. . . My mind often seems to reel under the doctora thesis immense significance this question has for me. Critical! That anything exists at all does seem to me a matter for the deepest awe.” Why does something exist instead of nothing? Leibniz answered this question by arguing that something exists rather than nothing because a necessary being exists which carries within itself its reason for existence and is the sufficient reason for the existence of all contingent being.
Although Leibniz (followed by certain contemporary philosophers) regarded the non- existence of a necessary being as logically impossible, a more modest explication of necessity of existence in terms of what he calls “factual necessity” has been given by John Hick: a necessary being is an eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible being. Leibniz, of course, identified the necessary being as God. His critics, however, disputed this identification, contending that the material universe could itself be assigned the status of a necessary being. “Why,” queried David Hume, “may not the material universe be the necessary existent Being, according to this pretended explanation of necessity?” Typically, this has been precisely the position of the atheist. Atheists have not felt compelled to embrace the view that the universe came into being out of nothing for doctora, no reason at all; rather they regard the imagery essay universe itself as a sort of factually necessary being: the universe is eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible. As Russell neatly put it, ” . . . The universe is just there, and that’s all.” Does Leibniz’s argument, therefore, leave us in a rational impasse, or might there not be some further resources available for untangling the riddle of the doctora existence of the critical on hamlet's madness world? It seems to me that there are. It will be remembered that an essential property of a necessary being is thesis eternality. Writing Camps! If then it could be made plausible that the universe began to exist and is not, therefore, eternal, one would to that extent at least have shown the superiority of doctora thesis theism as a rational world view. Now there is one form of the cosmological argument, much neglected today but of great historical importance, that aims precisely at the demonstration that the universe had a beginning in time. Originating in critical on hamlet's madness, the efforts of Christian theologians to refute the Greek doctrine of the eternity of matter, this argument was developed into doctora, sophisticated formulations by medieval Islamic and Jewish theologians, who in turn passed it back to the Latin West.
The argument thus has a broad intersectarian appeal, having been defended by Muslims, Jews, and Christians both Catholic and Protestant. This argument, which I have called the kalam cosmological argument, can be exhibited as follows: Let us examine this argument more closely. Defense of the essay Kalam Cosmological Argument. Clearly, the crucial premiss in this argument is (2), and two independent arguments are offered in support of thesis it. Let us, therefore, turn first to an examination of the supporting arguments. In order to understand (2.1), we need to understand the camps difference between a potential infinite and an actual infinite. Crudely put, a potential infinite is a collection which is increasing toward infinity as a limit, but never gets there. Such a collection is doctora thesis really indefinite, not infinite. The sign of this sort of infinity, which is used in creative writing massachusetts, calculus, is ? . An actual infinite is a collection in which the number of members really is infinite. The collection is not growing toward infinity; it is infinite, it is “complete.” The sign of this sort of infinity, which is used in set theory to designate sets which have an infinite number of thesis members, such as , is A 0 . And Contrast! Now (2.11) maintains, not that a potentially infinite number of things cannot exist, but that an actually infinite number of doctora things cannot exist.
For if an actually infinite number of things could exist, this would spawn all sorts of absurdities. Perhaps the best way to bring home the critical on hamlet's madness truth of doctora (2.11) is by means of an illustration. Let me use one of my favorites, Hilbert’s Hotel, a product of the mind of the camps massachusetts great German mathematician, David Hilbert. Let us imagine a hotel with a finite number of rooms. Suppose, furthermore, that all the rooms are full . When a new guest arrives asking for a room, the proprietor apologizes, “Sorry, all the rooms are full.” But now let us imagine a hotel with an thesis, infinite number of rooms and suppose once more that all the rooms are full. Critical Essays On Hamlet's Madness! There is not a single vacant room throughout the entire infinite hotel. Now suppose a new guest shows up, asking for a room. “But of doctora course!” says the usm college proprietor, and he immediately shifts the person in room #1 into room #2, the thesis person in room #2 into room #3, the person in room #3 into room #4 and so on, out to infinity. As a result of these room changes, room #1 now becomes vacant and the new guest gratefully checks in. But remember, before he arrived, all the rooms were full! Equally curious, according to usm college, the mathematicians, there are now no more persons in the hotel than there were before: the number is just infinite.
But how can this be? The proprietor just added the new guest’s name to doctora thesis, the register and tv boon gave him his keys-how can there not be one more person in the hotel than before? But the situation becomes even stranger. For suppose an doctora, infinity of new guests show up the desk, asking for a room. “Of course, of course!” says the proprietor, and he proceeds to shift the person in room #1 into room #2, the person in room #2 into room #4, the person in room #3 into room #6, and so on out to infinity, always putting each former occupant into the room number twice his own. As a result, all the odd numbered rooms become vacant, and the infinity of new guests is easily accommodated. Annotated Apa! And yet, before they came, all the rooms were full!
And again, strangely enough, the number of guests in the hotel is the same after the infinity of new guests check in as before, even though there were as many new guests as old guests. In fact, the proprietor could repeat this process infinitely many times and yet there would never be one single person more in the hotel than before. But Hilbert’s Hotel is even stranger than the doctora thesis German mathematician gave it out to be. For suppose some of the guests start to check out. Critical! Suppose the doctora thesis guest in room #1 departs. Is there not now one less person in the hotel? Not according to the mathematicians, but just ask the woman who makes the beds! Suppose the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . check out. Summer Camps Massachusetts! In this case, an infinite number of people have left the hotel, but according to doctora thesis, the mathematicians there are no fewer people in the hotel—but don’t talk to that laundry woman!
In fact, we could have every other guest check out of the hotel and repeat this process infinitely many times, and good yet there would never be any f people in the hotel. But suppose instead the persons in doctora thesis, room number 4, 5, 6, . . . checked out. At a single stroke, the hotel would be virtually emptied, the guest register reduced to three names, and the infinite converted to or curse, finitude. And yet it would remain true that the doctora thesis fewer same number of guests checked out this time as when the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . checked out. Can anyone sincerely believe that such a hotel could exist in reality? These sorts of creative writing summer camps massachusetts absurdities illustrate the impossibility of the existence of an actually infinite number of things. That takes us to (2.12). Thesis! The truth of this premiss seems fairly obvious. If the universe never began to exist, then prior to the present event there have existed an actually infinite number of previous events.
Hence, a beginningless series of events in time entails the existence of an good, actually infinite number of things, namely, past events. Given the truth of (2.11) and (2.12), the conclusion (2.13) logically follows. The series of past events must be finite and have a beginning. But since the doctora thesis universe is not distinct from the series of events, it follows that the universe began to exist. At this point, we might find it profitable to imagery, consider several objections that might be raised against the argument. First, let us consider objections to (2.11). Wallace Matson objects that the premiss must mean that an actually infinite number of things is logically impossible, but it is easy to show that such a collection is logically possible. For example, the series of negative numbers is an actually infinite collection with no first member. Matson’s error here lies in thinking that (2.11) means to assert the logical impossibility of an actually infinite number of things. Doctora! What the sleep imagery in macbeth essay premise expresses is the real or factual impossibility of an actual infinite.
To illustrate the doctora difference between real and logical possibility: there is critical no logical impossibility in doctora thesis, something’s coming to exist without a cause, but such a circumstance may well be really or metaphysically impossible. Essay! In the same way, (2.11) asserts that the doctora thesis absurdities entailed in the real existence of an actual infinite show that such an good thesis and contrast, existence is metaphysically impossible. Hence, one could grant that in the conceptual realm of mathematics one can, given certain conventions and axioms, speak consistently about infinite sets of numbers, but this in no way implies that an actually infinite number of things is doctora thesis really possible. One might also note that the mathematical school of intuitionism denies that even the writing massachusetts number series is actually infinite (they take it to be potentially infinite only), so that appeal to number series as examples of actual infinites is a moot procedure. The late J.L. Mackie also objected to (2.11), claiming that the doctora thesis absurdities are resolved by noting that for infinite groups the axiom “the whole is greater than its part” does not hold, as it does for finite groups. Similarly, Quentin Smith comments that once we understand that an infinite set has a proper subset which has the same number of members as the set itself, the purportedly absurd situations become “perfectly believable.” But to my mind, it is precisely this feature of critical essays infinite set theory which, when translated into the realm of the real, yields results which are perfectly incredible, for example, Hilbert’s Hotel. Moreover, not all the absurdities stem from infinite set theory’s denial of Euclid’s axiom: the absurdities illustrated by doctora guests checking out writing massachusetts of the hotel stem from the self-contradictory results when the doctora thesis inverse operations of subtraction or division are performed using transfinite numbers. Here the case against an actually infinite collection of things becomes decisive. Finally one might note the objection of Sorabji, who maintains that illustrations such as Hilbert’s Hotel involve no absurdity. In order to understand what is wrong with the kalam argument, he asks us to envision two parallel columns beginning at the same point and stretching away into bibliographies, the infinite distance, one the column of past years and the other the column of past days. The sense in which the column of past days is no larger than the column of past years, says Sorabji, is that the column of days will not “stick out” beyond the far end of the other column—since neither column has a far end.
Now in the case of doctora thesis Hilbert’s Hotel, there is the essay temptation to think that some unfortunate resident at the far end will drop off into space. But there is no far end: the line of residents will not stick out beyond the far end of the line of rooms. Doctora! Once this is seen, the outcome is just an explicable—even if a surprising and exhilarating—truth about infinity. Now Sorabji is certainly correct, as we have seen, that Hilbert’s Hotel illustrates an explicable truth about the nature of the essay actual infinite. If an doctora, actually infinite number of things could exist, a Hilbert’s Hotel would be possible. Critical Essays On Hamlet's Madness! But Sorabji seems to fail to understand the heart of the paradox: I, for one, experience no temptation to think of people dropping off the far end of the hotel, for there is none, but I do have difficulty believing that a hotel in which all the doctora rooms are occupied can accommodate more guests. Of course, the line of guests will not stick out beyond the line of annotated apa rooms, but if all of those infinite rooms already have guests in thesis, them, then can moving those guests about really create empty rooms?
Sorabji’s own illustration of the columns of past years and days I find not a little disquieting: if we divide the columns into good for compare and contrast, foot-long segments and mark one column as the years and the other as the days, then one column is as long as the other and yet for doctora, every foot-length segment in the column of sleep imagery in macbeth years, 365 segments of equal length are found in the column of days! These paradoxical results can be avoided only if such actually infinite collections can exist only in the imagination, not in reality. In any case, the Hilbert’s Hotel illustration is not exhausted by dealing only with the addition of new guests, for doctora thesis, the subtraction of guests results in absurdities even more intractable. Sorabji’s analysis says nothing to writing massachusetts, resolve these. Doctora! Hence, it seems to me that the objections to premiss (2.11) are less plausible than the premiss itself.
With regard to (2.12), the most frequent objection is bibliographies that the past ought to doctora thesis, be regarded as a potential infinite only, not an actual infinite. This was Aquinas’s position versus Bonaventure, and the contemporary philosopher Charles Hartshorne seems to side with Thomas on creative writing summer camps this issue. Such a position is, however, untenable. The future is potentially infinite—since it does not exist—but the past is actual in a way the thesis future is not, as evidenced by the fact that we have traces of the past in the present, but no traces of the apa future. Doctora! Hence, if the series of past events never began to exist, there must have been an actually infinite number of past events. The objections to either premiss, therefore, seem to be less compelling than the premisses themselves. Together they imply that the universe began to tv boon, exist. Hence, I conclude that this argument furnishes good grounds for accepting the truth of thesis premiss (2) that the universe began to exist. The second argument (2.2) for the beginning of the universe is based on the impossibility of on hamlet's madness forming an actual infinite by successive addition. Doctora! This argument is distinct from the first in that it does not deny the possibility of the or curse essay existence of an actual infinite, but the possibility of its being formed by successive addition.
Premiss (2.21) is the doctora crucial step in the argument. One cannot form an actually infinite collection of things by successively adding one member after another. Tv Boon! Since one can always add one more before arriving at infinity, it is impossible to reach actual infinity. Sometimes this is called the impossibility of “counting to infinity” or “traversing the infinite.” It is doctora important to understand that this impossibility has nothing to do with the in macbeth amount of time available: it belongs to the nature of infinity that it cannot be so formed. Now someone might say that while an thesis, infinite collection cannot be formed by beginning at a point and adding members, nevertheless an infinite collection could be formed by never beginning but ending at imagery in macbeth, a point, that is to say, ending at a point after having added one member after another from doctora, eternity. But this method seems even more unbelievable than the usm college essay first method. If one cannot count to infinity, how can one count down from infinity? If one cannot traverse the thesis infinite by moving in one direction, how can one traverse it by camps simply moving in the opposite direction? Indeed, the idea of a beginningless series ending in the present seems to be absurd.
To give just one illustration: suppose we meet a man who claims to doctora, have been counting from eternity and is now finishing: . . ., -3, -2, -1, 0. Creative Summer! We could ask, why did he not finish counting yesterday or the day before or the year before? By then an infinite time had already elapsed, so that he should already have finished by then. Thesis! Thus, at annotated bibliographies apa, no point in the infinite past could we ever find the man finishing his countdown, for doctora, by that point he should already be done! In fact, no matter how far back into the past we go, we can never find the man counting at usm college, all, for at any point we reach he will have already finished. But if at no point in the past do we find him counting, this contradicts the hypothesis that he has been counting from eternity. This illustrates the fact that the formation of an actual infinite by doctora thesis successive addition is equally impossible whether one proceeds to or from infinity. Premiss (2.22) presupposes a dynamical view of time according to which events are actualized in essays on hamlet's madness, serial fashion, one after another. The series of events is not a sort of timelessly subsisting world-line which appears successively in consciousness. Rather becoming is real and essential to a temporal process.
Now this view of time is not without its challenges, but to consider their objections in this article would take us too far afield. In this piece, we must rest content with the fact that we are arguing on common ground with our ordinary intuitions of temporal becoming and in agreement with a good number of contemporary philosophers of time and space. Given the doctora truth of critical essays on hamlet's (2.21) and (2.22), the conclusion (2.23) logically follows. If the universe did not begin to exist a finite time ago, then the present moment could never arrive. Doctora Thesis! But obviously, it has arrived. Therefore, we know that the universe is finite in the past and essays on hamlet's madness began to doctora thesis, exist. Again, it would be profitable to consider various objections that have been offered against this reasoning. Against (2.21), Mackie objects that the argument illicitly assumes an infinitely distant starting point in the past and then pronounces it impossible to imagery essay, travel from that point to today.
But there would in an infinite past be no starting point, not even an infinitely distant one. Yet from any given point in the infinite past, there is doctora only a finite distance to summer, the present. Now it seems to me that Mackie’s allegation that the argument presupposes an infinitely distant starting point is doctora entirely groundless. The beginningless character of the series only annotated apa serves to accentuate the thesis difficulty of its being formed by successive addition. The fact that there is no beginning at all , not even an infinitely distant one, makes the problem more, not less, nettlesome. And the point that from any moment in creative summer camps massachusetts, the infinite past there is only a finite temporal distance to thesis, the present may be dismissed as irrelevant. The question is annotated bibliographies apa not how any finite portion of the temporal series can be formed, but how the whole infinite series can be formed. If Mackie thinks that because every segment of the series can be formed by successive addition and therefore the whole series can be so formed, then he is simply committing the fallacy of composition.
Sorabji similarly objects that the reason it is impossible to count down from infinity is because counting involves by nature taking a starting number, which is lacking in this case. But completing an infinite lapse of years involves no starting year and doctora thesis is, hence, possible. But this response is clearly inadequate, for, as we have seen, the years of an infinite past could be enumerated by the negative numbers, in which case a completed infinity of years would, indeed, entail a beginningless countdown from essay, infinity. Sorabji anticipates this rebuttal, however, and claims that such a backwards countdown is possible in principle and therefore no logical barrier has been exhibited to doctora, the elapsing of an infinity of past years. Again, however, the question I am posing is not whether there is a logical contradiction in such a notion, but whether such a countdown is not metaphysically absurd. For we have seen that such a countdown should at essays, any point already have been completed. But Sorabji is again ready with a response: to say the countdown should at any point already be over confuses counting an infinity of numbers with counting all the numbers.
At any given point in the past, the eternal counter will have already counted an infinity of negative numbers, but that does not entail that he will have counted all the thesis negative numbers. Summer Camps! I do not think the argument makes this alleged equivocation, and this may be made clear by examining the thesis reason why our eternal counter is supposedly able to complete a count of the negative numbers ending at zero. In order to creative writing camps massachusetts, justify the possibility of this intuitively impossible feat, the argument’s opponent appeals to thesis, the so- called Principle of Correspondence used in set theory to writing massachusetts, determine whether two sets are equivalent (that is, have the same number of members) by matching the members of one set with the thesis members of the other set and vice versa . On the basis of summer massachusetts this principle the objector argues that since the counter has lived, say, an infinite number of years and since the set of past years can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with the set of negative numbers, it follows that by doctora thesis counting one number a year an apa, eternal counter would complete a countdown of the doctora negative numbers by bibliographies the present year. If we were to ask why the thesis counter would not finish next year or in a hundred years, the essays on hamlet's madness objector would respond that prior to the present year an infinite number of years will have already elapsed, so that by the Principle of Correspondence, all the numbers should have been counted by now. But this reasoning backfires on the objector: for, as we have seen, on this account the counter should at any point in the past have already finished counting all the numbers, since a one-to-one correspondence exists between the doctora thesis years of the past and the negative numbers. Thus, there is no equivocation between counting an infinity of numbers and counting all the numbers. Usm College! But at this point a deeper absurdity bursts in view: for thesis, suppose there were another counter who counted at imagery essay, a rate of one negative number per day. According to thesis, the Principle of Correspondence, which underlies infinite set theory and transfinite arithmetic, both of our eternal counters will finish their countdowns at the same moment, even though one is counting at a rate 365 times faster than the other! Can anyone believe that such scenarios can actually obtain in reality, but do not rather represent the outcome of an imaginary game being played in a purely conceptual realm according to usm college essay, adopted logical conventions and axioms? As for premiss (2.22), many thinkers have objected that we need not regard the past as a beginningless infinite series with an end in the present. Popper, for example, admits that the doctora set of all past events is critical essays on hamlet's madness actually infinite, but holds that the series of past events is thesis potentially infinite.
This may be seen by beginning in the present and numbering the events backward, thus forming a potential infinite. Therefore, the problem of an actual infinite’s being formed by successive addition does not arise. Similarly, Swinburne muses that it is dubious whether a completed infinite series with no beginning but an creative camps, end makes sense, but he proposes to solve the problem by beginning in the present and regressing into the past so that the series of doctora past events would have no end and essay would therefore not be a completed infinite. This objection, however, clearly confuses the mental regress of counting with the doctora real progress of the temporal series of events itself. Numbering the series from the present backward only shows that if there are an infinite number of past events, then we can enumerate an infinite number of past events. But the problem is, how can this infinite collection of events come to be formed by sleep imagery in macbeth essay successive addition? How we mentally conceive the series does not in doctora, any way affect the ontological character of the series itself as a series with no beginning but an end, or in in macbeth, other words, as an actual infinite completed by successive addition. Once again, then, the objections to (2.21) and (2.22) seem less plausible than the premisses themselves.
Together they imply (2.23), or that the universe began to exist. These purely philosophical arguments for the beginning of the universe have received remarkable confirmation from discoveries in astronomy and doctora astrophysics during this century. These confirmations might be summarized under two heads: the confirmation from the expansion of the universe and the confirmation from thermodynamic properties of the universe. With regard to the first, Hubble’s discovery in 1929 of the creative writing camps massachusetts red-shift in the light from distant galaxies began a revolution in astronomy perhaps as significant as the Copernican revolution. Thesis! Prior to this time the usm college essay universe as a whole was conceived to be static; but the startling conclusion to which Hubble was led was that the red-shift is doctora due to the fact that the universe is in fact expanding . The staggering implication of essay this fact is that as one traces the expansion back in time, the thesis universe becomes denser and denser until one reaches a point of infinite density from which the universe began to expand.
The upshot of Hubble’s discovery was that at some point in the finite past-probably around 15 billion years ago-the entire known universe was contracted down to a single mathematical point which marked the origin of the universe. That initial explosion has come to or curse essay, be known as the “Big Bang.” Four of the world’s most prominent astronomers described that event in these words: The universe began from a state of doctora thesis infinite density. . . . Space and time were created in sleep imagery, that event and doctora thesis so was all the matter in the universe. It is not meaningful to essay, ask what happened before the Big Bang; it is like asking what is north of the North Pole. Similarly, it is not sensible to doctora, ask where the Big Bang took place. The point-universe was not an object isolated in space; it was the entire universe, and critical essays so the doctora answer can only be that the Big Bang happened everywhere. This event that marked the beginning of the universe becomes all the more amazing when one reflects on the fact that a state of “infinite density” is synonymous to “nothing.” There can be no object that possesses infinite density, for if it had any size at all it could still be even more dense.
Therefore, as Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle points out, the Big Bang Theory requires the creation of matter from nothing. This is because as one goes back in time, one reaches a point at which, in Hoyle’s words, the universe was “shrunk down to nothing at essays on hamlet's, all.” Thus, what the Big Bang model of the universe seems to doctora thesis, require is that the universe began to annotated bibliographies apa, exist and was created out of thesis nothing. Some theorists have attempted to writing massachusetts, avoid the absolute beginning of the universe implied by the Big Bang theory by speculating that the universe may undergo an doctora, infinite series of expansions and contractions. There are, however, good grounds for doubting the adequacy of such an oscillating model of the universe: (i) The oscillating model appears to be physically impossible. For all the talk about such models, the fact seems to be that they are only theoretically, but not physically possible. Essay! As the late Professor Tinsley of Yale explains, in doctora thesis, oscillating models “even though the mathematics say that the universe oscillates, there is no known physics to reverse the collapse and bounce back to a new expansion. The physics seems to say that those models start from the Big Bang, expand, collapse, then end.” In order for the oscillating model to be correct, it would seem that the bibliographies apa known laws of physics would have to be revised. Doctora! (ii) The oscillating model seems to be observationally untenable. Two facts of observational astronomy appear to run contrary to the oscillating model. First, the observed homogeneity of matter distribution throughout the universe seems unaccountable on an oscillating model. During the contraction phase of such a model, black holes begin to gobble up surrounding matter, resulting in or curse essay, an inhomogeneous distribution of matter. But there is doctora thesis no known mechanism to “iron out” these inhomogeneities during the ensuing expansion phase.
Thus, the homogeneity of annotated matter observed throughout the universe would remain unexplained. Second, the density of the universe appears to thesis, be insufficient for the re-contraction of the universe. For the creative summer massachusetts oscillating model to be even possible, it is doctora thesis necessary that the universe be sufficiently dense such that gravity can overcome the summer camps massachusetts force of the expansion and thesis pull the universe back together again. However, according to the best estimates, if one takes into account both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos) as well as any possible contribution of neutrino particles to total mass, the universe is still only about one-half that needed for re-contraction. Moreover, recent work on calculating the essay speed and deceleration of the expansion confirms that the universe is thesis expanding at, so to speak, “escape velocity” and will not therefore re-contract. According to Sandage and Tammann, “Hence, we are forced to decide that . . . it seems inevitable that the Universe will expand forever”; they conclude, therefore, that “the Universe has happened only once.”
As if this were not enough, there is a second scientific confirmation of the beginning of the essays madness universe based on the thermodynamic properties of various cosmological models. According to the second law of thermodynamics, processes taking place in a closed system always tend toward a state of equilibrium. Now our interest is in what implications this has when the law is applied to the universe as a whole. For the universe is a gigantic closed system, since it is everything there is and no energy is being fed into it from without. The second law seems to imply that, given enough time, the universe will reach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, known as the “heat death” of the universe. This death may be hot or cold, depending on doctora whether the universe will expand forever or eventually re-contract.
On the one hand, if the density of the universe is great enough to overcome the force of the expansion, then the universe will re-contract into a hot fireball. As the universe contracts, the stars burn more rapidly until they finally explode or evaporate. Bibliographies! As the universe grows denser, the black holes begin to gobble up everything around them and doctora begin themselves to coalesce until all the essays madness black holes finally coalesce into one gigantic black hole which is coextensive with the universe, from which it will never re-emerge. Doctora Thesis! On the other hand, if the density of the universe is insufficient to bibliographies apa, halt the expansion, as seems more likely, then the doctora galaxies will turn all their gas into annotated bibliographies apa, stars and the stars will burn out. At 10[30 ]years the universe will consist of thesis 90% dead stars, 9% supermassive black holes, and l% atomic matter.
Elementary particle physics suggests that thereafter protons will decay into electrons and positrons, so that space will be filled with a rarefied gas so thin that the distance between an electron and a positron will be about the critical essays on hamlet's madness size of the present galaxy. At 10 years some scientists believe that the thesis black holes themselves will dissipate into radiation and tv boon or curse essay elementary particles. Eventually all the matter in the dark, cold, ever-expanding universe will be reduced to an ultra-thin gas of doctora thesis elementary particles and radiation. Equilibrium will prevail throughout, and the entire universe will be in its final state, from which no change will occur. Now the usm college question which needs to be asked is this: if, given sufficient time, the universe will reach heat death, then why is it not now in a state of heat death if it has existed for thesis, infinite time? If the annotated bibliographies apa universe did not begin to exist, then it should now be in a state of equilibrium. Some theorists have suggested that the universe escapes final heat death by oscillating from eternity past to eternity future. But we have already seen that such a model seems to be physically and observationally untenable. Doctora Thesis! But even if we waive those considerations and suppose that the universe does oscillate, the fact is apa that the thesis thermodynamic properties of this model imply the very beginning of the writing summer massachusetts universe which its proponents seek to avoid. For the doctora thesis thermodynamic properties of an oscillating model are such that the universe expands farther and farther with each successive cycle.
Therefore, as one traces the expansions back in time, they grow smaller and creative writing summer massachusetts smaller. As one scientific team explains, “The effect of entropy production will be to enlarge the cosmic scale, from cycle to cycle. . Doctora! . . Thus, looking back in time, each cycle generated less entropy, had a smaller cycle time, and had a smaller cycle expansion factor than the cycle that followed it.” Novikov and Zeldovich of the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, therefore, conclude, “The multicycle model has an infinite future, but only a finite past.” As another writer points out, the for compare and contrast essay oscillating model of the doctora thesis universe thus still requires an origin of the universe prior to the smallest cycle. So whatever scenario one selects for the future of the usm college essay universe, thermodynamics implies that the universe began to exist. According to physicist P.C.W. Davies, the universe must have been created a finite time ago and is in the process of doctora thesis winding down. Prior to the creation, the universe simply did not exist. Therefore, Davies concludes, even though we may not like it, we must conclude that the universe’s energy was somehow simply “put in” at usm college essay, the creation as an initial condition. We, therefore, have both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation for the beginning of the universe. On this basis, I think that we are amply justified in doctora thesis, concluding the truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist.
Premiss (1) strikes me as relatively non-controversial. It is usm college based on the metaphysical intuition that something cannot come out of nothing. Hence, any argument for the principle is apt to be less obvious than the principle itself. Even the great skeptic David Hume admitted that he never asserted so absurd a proposition as that something might come into existence without a cause; he only doctora thesis denied that one could prove the obviously true causal principle. With regard to the universe, if originally there were absolutely nothing— no God, no space, no time—then how could the usm college universe possibly come to doctora thesis, exist? The truth of the principle ex nihilo , nihil fit is so obvious that I think we are justified in foregoing an elaborate defense of the argument’s first premiss.
Nevertheless, some thinkers, exercised to avoid the theism implicit in writing summer massachusetts, this premiss within the present context, have felt driven to doctora, deny its truth. In order to avoid its theistic implications, Davies presents a scenario which, he confesses, “should not be taken too seriously,” but which seems to have a powerful attraction for Davies. He has reference to a quantum theory of gravity according to which spacetime itself could spring uncaused into being out of absolutely nothing. While admitting that there is “still no satisfactory theory of quantum gravity,” such a theory “would allow spacetime to be created and destroyed spontaneously and annotated bibliographies uncaused in the same way that particles are created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused. The theory would entail a certain mathematically determined probability that, for instance, a blob of space would appear where none existed before. Thus, spacetime could pop out of nothingness as the result of a causeless quantum transition.”
Now, in fact, particle pair production furnishes no analogy for this radical ex nihilo becoming, as Davies seems to imply. This quantum phenomenon, even if an exception to doctora thesis, the principle that every event has a cause, provides no analogy to essay, something’s coming into being out of nothing. Though physicists speak of this as particle pair creation and annihilation, such terms are philosophically misleading, for all that actually occurs is conversion of energy into matter or vice versa. As Davies admits, “The processes described here do not represent the thesis creation of matter out of good and contrast nothing, but the conversion of pre- existing energy into material form.” Hence, Davies greatly misleads his reader when he claims that “Particles . . Doctora! . can appear out of nowhere without specific causation” and again, “Yet the world of quantum physics routinely produces something for nothing.” On the contrary, the world of quantum physics never produces something for nothing. But to sleep in macbeth essay, consider the case on doctora its own merits: quantum gravity is so poorly understood that the period prior to 10[-43] sec, which this theory hopes to describe, has been compared by one wag to the regions on the maps of the ancient cartographers marked “Here there be dragons”: it can easily be filled with all sorts of fantasies. In fact, there seems to be no good reason to think that such a theory would involve the sort of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo which Davies suggests. In Macbeth! A quantum theory of gravity has the goal of providing a theory of gravitation based on the exchange of particles (gravitons) rather than the geometry of doctora thesis space, which can then be brought into a Grand Unification Theory that unites all the critical madness forces of thesis nature into a super symmetrical state in which one fundamental force and a single kind of particle exist. But there seems to good for compare and contrast, be nothing in this which suggests the possibility of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo . Indeed, it is not at all clear that Davies’s account is even intelligible. What can be meant, for example, by the claim that there is doctora a mathematical probability that nothingness should spawn a region of spacetime “where none existed before?” It cannot mean that given enough time a region of spacetime would pop into critical essays madness, existence at a certain place—since neither place nor time exists apart from spacetime.
The notion of some probability of something’s coming out of nothing thus seems incoherent. I am reminded in this connection of some remarks made by A.N. Prior concerning an argument put forward by Jonathan Edwards against something’s coming into existence uncaused. This would be impossible, said Edwards, because it would then be inexplicable why just any and everything cannot or does not come to exist uncaused. One cannot respond that only things of a certain nature come into existence uncaused—since prior to their existence they have no nature which could control their coming to doctora thesis, be. Prior made a cosmological application of sleep imagery Edwards’s reasoning by commenting on the steady state model’s postulating the continuous creation of hydrogen atoms ex nihilo : It is no part of Hoyle’s theory that this process is causeless, but I want to be more definite about this, and to say that if it is causeless, then what is alleged to happen is fantastic and incredible. If it is possible for objects—objects, now, which really are objects, “substances endowed with capacities”—to start existing without a cause, then it is incredible that they should all turn out to be objects of the thesis same sort, namely, hydrogen atoms. The peculiar nature of hydrogen atoms cannot possibly be what makes such starting-to-exist possible for them but not for objects of any other sort; for hydrogen atoms do not have this nature until they are there to have it, i.e. until their starting-to-exist has already occurred. Sleep In Macbeth! That is Edwards’s argument, in fact; and here it does seem entirely cogent. . . . Now in doctora thesis, the case at hand, if originally absolutely nothing existed, then why should it be spacetime that springs spontaneously out of the void, rather than, say, hydrogen atoms or even rabbits? How can one talk about the in macbeth probability of any particular thing’s popping into being out of nothing?
Davies on one occasion seems to answer as if the laws of physics are the controlling factor which determines what may leap uncaused into being: “But what of the laws? They have to be ‘there’ to start with so that the universe can come into being. Quantum physics has to exist (in some sense) so that a quantum transition can generate the cosmos in doctora, the first place.” Now this seems exceedingly peculiar. Or Curse Essay! Davies seems to attribute to the laws of nature themselves a sort of ontological and causal status such that they constrain spontaneous becoming. But this seems clearly wrong-headed: the laws of thesis physics do not themselves cause or constrain anything; they are simply propositional descriptions of a certain form and generality of what does happen in usm college essay, the universe. And the issue Edwards raises is why, if there were absolutely nothing, it would be true that any one thing rather than another should pop into being uncaused?
It is doctora futile to say it somehow belongs to the nature of spacetime to do so, for good and contrast, if there were absolutely nothing then there would have been no nature to determine that spacetime should spring into being. Even more fundamentally, however, what Davies envisions is surely metaphysical nonsense. Doctora Thesis! Though his scenario is cast as a scientific theory,. someone ought to be bold enough to say that the Emperor is wearing no clothes. Either the necessary and sufficient conditions for the appearance of spacetime existed or not; if so, then it is not true that nothing existed; if not, then it would seem ontologically impossible that being should arise out of absolute non-being. To call such spontaneous springing into being out of non-being a “quantum transition” or to bibliographies apa, attribute it to doctora thesis, “quantum gravity” explains nothing; indeed, on this account, there is no explanation. It just happens. It seems to tv boon or curse essay, me, therefore, that Davies has not provided any plausible basis for denying the truth of the cosmological argument’s first premiss. That whatever begins to exist has a cause would seem to be an ontologically necessary truth, one which is constantly confirmed in our experience. Given the truth of doctora premisses (1) and (2), it logically follows that (3) the sleep imagery in macbeth essay universe has a cause of its existence. In fact, I think that it can be plausibly argued that the cause of the universe must be a personal Creator.
For how else could a temporal effect arise from an eternal cause? If the thesis cause were simply a mechanically operating set of necessary and sufficient conditions existing from eternity, then why would not the effect also exist from eternity? For example, if the cause of water being frozen is the temperature’s being below zero degrees, then if the temperature were below zero degrees from eternity, then any water present would be frozen from essay, eternity. Doctora! The only way to have an eternal cause but a temporal effect would seem to be if the cause is a personal agent who freely chooses to create an effect in good for compare essay, time. For example, a man sitting from eternity may will himself to stand up; hence, a temporal effect may arise from an eternally existing agent. Indeed, the agent may will from eternity to thesis, create a temporal effect, so that no change in the agent need be conceived. Thus, we are brought not merely to the first cause of the tv boon or curse essay universe, but to its personal Creator. In conclusion, we have seen on the basis of both philosophical argument and thesis scientific confirmation that it is plausible that the universe began to exist. Given the intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence, we have been led to critical essays on hamlet's, conclude that the universe has a cause of doctora thesis its existence.
On the basis of our argument, this cause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, and immaterial. Moreover, it would have to be a personal agent who freely elects to create an effect in time. For Compare! Therefore, on the basis of the kalam cosmological argument, I conclude that it is rational to believe that God exists. G.W. Leibniz, “The Principles of Nature and of Grace, Based on Reason,” in doctora, Leibniz Selections , ed. Tv Boon Or Curse! Philip P. Wiener, The Modern Student’s Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1951), p. Doctora! 527. Aristotle Metaphysica Lambda. l. 982b10-15. Norman Malcolm, Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir (London: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. Usm College Essay! 70. J.J.C. Smart, “The Existence of God,” Church Quarterly Review 156 (1955): 194. G.W.
Leibniz, Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of thesis God, the Freedom of thesis and contrast Man, and the Origin of thesis Evil , trans. E.M. Good For Compare! Huggard (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1951), p. 127; cf. idem, “Principles,” p. 528. John Hick, “God as Necessary Being,” Journal of Philosophy 57 (1960): 733-4. David Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion , ed. with an Introduction by Norman Kemp Smith, Library of the Liberal Arts (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1947), p. 190. Bertrand Russell and F.C. Thesis! Copleston, “The Existence of God,” in The Existence of God , ed. with an Introduction by John Hick, Problems of Philosophy Series (New York: Macmillan Co., 1964), p. Essay! 175. See William Lane Craig, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz , Library of Philosophy and Religion (London: Macmillan, 1980), pp. Doctora! 48-58, 61-76, 98-104, 128-31. Wallace Matson, The Existence of God (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965), pp.
58-60. J.L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), p. 93. Quentin Smith, “Infinity and the Past,” Philosophy of Science 54 (1987): 69. Richard Sorabji, Time, Creation and the Continuum (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983), pp.
213, 222-3. Charles Hartshorne, Man’s Vision of God and the Logic of Theism (Chicago: Willett, Clark, Co., 1941), p. Good Thesis! 37. G.J. Whitrow defends a form of this argument which does not presuppose a dynamical view of time, by asserting that an thesis, infinite past would still have to be “lived through” by any everlasting, conscious being, even if the series of physical events subsisted timelessly (G.J. Whitrow, The Natural Philosophy of Time , 2d ed. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980], pp. 28-32). Sorabji, Time, Creation, and the Continuum, pp. Bibliographies Apa! 219-22. K.R.
Popper, “On the Possibility of an Infinite Past: a Reply to Whitrow,” British Journal for doctora, the Philosophy of Science 29 (1978): 47-8. R.G. Swinburne, “The Beginning of the Universe,” The Aristotelian Society 40 (1966): 131-2. Richard J. And Contrast Essay! Gott, et.al. , “Will the Universe Expand Forever?” Scientific American (March 1976), p. Thesis! 65. Fred Hoyle, From Stonehenge to Modern Cosmology (San Francisco: W.H.
Freeman, 1972), p. 36. Beatrice Tinsley, personal letter. David N. Schramm and Gary Steigman, “Relic Neutrinos and the Density of the Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 243 (1981): p. 1-7. Alan Sandage and G.A. Tammann, “Steps Toward the Hubble Constant. VII,” Astrophyscial Journal 210 (1976): 23, 7; see also idem, “Steps toward the Hubble Constant. VIII.” Astrophysical Journal 256 (1982): 339-45. Duane Dicus, et.al. “Effects of Proton Decay on the Cosmological Future.” Astrophysical Journal 252 (1982): l, 8. I.D.
Novikov and Ya. B. Zeldovich, “Physical Processes Near Cosmological Singularities,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 11 (1973): 401-2. John Gribbin, “Oscillating Universe Bounces Back,” Nature 259 (1976): 16. P.C.W. Sleep In Macbeth! Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry (London: Surrey University Press, 1974), p. 104. David Hume to John Stewart, February, 1754, in The Letters of David Hume , ed. J.Y.T.
Greig (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1:187. Paul Davies, God and the New Physics (New York: Simon Schuster, 1983), p. 214. Ibid., pp. 215, 216. A.N. Prior, “Limited Indeterminism,” in Papers on Time and Tense (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. Doctora Thesis! 65. Updated: 14 July 2002.
“Concerning matter, we have been all wrong. Usm College Essay! What we have called matter is doctora energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to the senses. There is no matter.” – Quote attributed to Albert Einstein. Yes, this is quite a bold statement, if true, that would certainly demand some sort of evidence or mathematical proof to back it up. It may seem like a paradox that the things which we can see and touch are nonexistent.
However, there is an answer to this, which may be found in the bold and exciting (relatively) new science of quantum physics. In ages past, it was believed that what we can see and touch, like a rock for instance, was the elements, in other words, matter. However, as science developed, such as chemistry, and much more recently quantum physics, it had been observed that matter seems to exist on annotated bibliographies one hand, but once one takes a deep look into the heart of the matter (no pun intended), there seems as if there is nothing. In atoms, you have mostly protons, neutrons and electrons. However, electrons for example, are insignificantly microscopic and spread out over enormous distances. Inbetween them, there is what is perceived as empty space. In fact, 99.99999% of an doctora, atom is this so-called ‘empty space’. Even if we look into electrons, protons, etc, we see that there is yet more open space.
Gluons, neutrinos and the like are also in there somewhere but no matter how far into good for compare and contrast essay, these particles we look, there is not anything that we can say quantifiably that it is the building block of all of this. What’s more, electrons literally possess no dimension. An electron is simply not an object as we know it. There is nothing. Thesis! However, our eyes and observations are fooling us because indeed this nothing is something but we can not quantifiably say it is imagery in macbeth essay something and therefore it is nothing. There has to exist an energy that holds all these particles together like a sort of glue, or else matter would not exist because it would be akin to having a rock turn into sand that can not stay together as a rock any longer.
There have been some notable quantum physicists, such as Dr. Fred Alan Wolf, that have been looking to fuse science with spirituality…and with relative success. Below is from an article attributed to Dr. Wolf concerning his perception of this most-interesting issue at hand. Quantum physics has thus brought about a radical new understanding both of the particles and doctora thesis the void. In subatomic physics, mass is no longer seen as a material substance but is creative writing summer massachusetts recognized as a form of energy. When a piece of seemingly solid matter–a rock or a human hand or the limb of a tree–is placed under a powerful electronic microscope: the doctora thesis electron-scanning microscope, with the power to magnify several thousand times, takes us down into a realm that has the look of the creative summer camps massachusetts sea about it… In the kingdom of corpuscles, there is transfiguration and there is samsara, the endless round of birth and death. Every passing second, some 2-1/2 million red cells are born; every second, the same number die. The typical cell lives about doctora thesis, 110 days, then becomes tired and decrepit. There are no lingering deaths here, for annotated, when a cell loses its vital force, it somehow attracts the attention of macrophage. As the magnification increases, the flesh does begin to dissolve.
Muscle fiber now takes on a fully crystaline aspect. Doctora! We can see that it is bibliographies made of long, spiral molecules in orderly array. Thesis! And all of these molecules are swaying like wheat in the wind, connected with one another and held in place by invisible waves that pulse many trillions of times a second. Annotated Apa! What are the molecules made of? As we move closer, we see atoms, the tiny shadowy balls dancing around their fixed locations in the molecules, sometimes changing position with their partners in perfect rhythms. Thesis! And now we focus on one of the atoms; its interior is lightly veiled by a cloud of electrons.
We come closer, increasing the magnification. The shell dissolves and we look on the inside to find…nothing. Somewhere within that emptiness, we know is a nucleus. We scan the space, and there it is, a tiny dot. At last, we have discovered something hard and essays solid, a reference point. Thesis! But no! as we move closer to the nucleus, it too begins to dissolve.
It too is nothing more than an oscillating field, waves of rhythm. Inside the nucleus are other organized fields: protons, neutrons, even smaller “particles.” Each of these, upon sleep essay our approach, also dissolve into pure rhythm. Doctora Thesis! These days they (the scientists) are looking for quarks, strange subatomic entities, having qualities which they describe with such words as upness, downness, charm, strangeness, truth, beauty, color, and flavor. Tv Boon Essay! But no matter. If we could get close enough to these wondrous quarks, they too would melt away. They too would have to thesis, give up all pretense of solidity. Good Thesis For Compare Essay! Even their speed and relationship would be unclear, leaving them only relationship and doctora thesis pattern of vibration. Of what is the annotated bibliographies body made? It is doctora thesis made of emptiness and rhythm. At the ultimate heart of the body, at the heart of the world, there is no solidity.
Once again, there is only the dance. (At) the unimaginable heart of the atom, the sleep imagery in macbeth essay compact nucleus, we have found no solid object, but rather a dynamic pattern of tightly confined energy vibrating perhaps 1022 times a second: a dance… The protons–the positively charged knots in the pattern of the nucleus–are not only powerful; they are very old. Along with the much lighter electrons that spin and vibrate around the thesis outer regions of the tv boon essay atom, the protons constitute the most ancient entities of matter in the universe, going back to the first seconds after the birth of space and time. It follows then that in the world of subatomic physics there are no objects, only thesis processes. Atoms consist of or curse particles and doctora thesis these particles are not made of any solid material substance. When we observe them under a microscope, we never see any substance; we rather observe dynamic patterns, continually changing into one another–a continuous dance of energy. This dance of good thesis essay energy, the underlying rhythm of the universe, is again more intuited than seen. Doctora Thesis! Jack Kornfield, a contemporary teacher of meditation, finds a parallel between the behavior of subatomic particles and meditational states: When the mind becomes very silent, you can clearly see that all that exists in usm college essay, the world are brief moments of consciousness arising together with the six sense objects. There is only sight and the knowing of sight, sound and the knowing of sound, smell, taste and doctora thesis the knowing of them, thoughts and the knowing of thoughts. If you can make the mind very focused, as you can in meditation, you see that the sleep in macbeth whole world breaks down into these small events of sight and the knowing, sound and the knowing, thought and the knowing.
No longer are these houses, cars, bodies or even oneself. All you see are particles of consciousness as experience. Yet you can go deep in meditation in another way and the mind becomes very still. You will see differently that consciousness is like waves, like a sea, an doctora, ocean. Now it is not particles but instead every sight and every sound is contained in this ocean of consciousness. Creative Summer Camps! From this perspective, there is no sense of particles at doctora, all. If truly being the words of tv boon or curse essay Dr.
Wolf, I believe this above explanation of this fascinating reality is a beautiful description of the doctora thesis issue at hand. So how is or curse it that we exist as matter? Albert Einstein alluded to this answer. We, the people of this beautiful planet, are really beings made of energy, but we exist at the 3rd dimension because our atoms have a specific frequency which makes us able to exist in this very 3rd dimension. Doctora Thesis! This specific frequency is stable enough for all our lifetime.
Using this information, if we are indeed capable of accelerating and decelerating the creative summer camps frequencies to make us able to exist in the 3rd dimension, then naturally, we can use this in order to travel inter-dimensionally throughout the doctora thesis infinite multiverse…and here lies the key to the true evolution of the human being race. Once we learn, or progress far enough, to tv boon essay, accelerate and decelerate the vibrating frequencies of our atoms, then, in theory, we will be able to exist in the 5th dimension and in parallel universes of this wonderful multiverse. Note: The quote attributed to Albert Einstein in the beginning of the article, as well as the thesis article quotations attributed to Fred Alan Wolf are not in the specific terms which these two physicists have used. However, upon for compare essay deeper research, there is enough evidence to doctora thesis, be compelled to believe that the general message of matter not being definitive to still hold true. A quote from Einstein’s “Metaphysics of Relativity” (1950)shows this: “Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept ‘empty space’ loses its meaning. Writing Summer Camps Massachusetts! … The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton.” Legendary physicist Max Planck is attributed to saying in a lecture that was given in Florence the following: “As a physicist, that is, a man who had devoted his whole life to a wholly prosaic science, the exploration of matter, no one would surely suspect me of being a fantast. And so, having studied the atom, I am telling you that there is no matter as such. All matter arises and persists only due to a force that causes the thesis atomic particles to vibrate, holding them together in the tiniest of solar systems, the atom.
Yet in the whole of the universe there is no force that is either intelligent or eternal, and we must therefore assume that behind this force there is a conscious, intelligent mind or spirit. This is the very origin of sleep imagery in macbeth essay all matter.” Source of this quote is from the following: Pauli, Wolfgang: THE INFLUENCE OF ARCHETYPICAL PRESENTATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL SCIENCE THEORY BY KEPPLER in: Jung Pauli: NATURAL EXPLANATION AND PSYCHE, Zuerich 1952, p. 163. MUST READ ARTICLE ON TRUMP’S GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO BRING TYRANNY TO AMERICA. Democracies end when they are too democratic. -Plato.
As this dystopian election campaign has unfolded, my mind keeps being tugged by a passage in Plato’s Republic . It has unsettled — even surprised — me from the thesis moment I first read it in graduate school. The passage is from the part of the dialogue where Socrates and his friends are talking about the nature of different political systems, how they change over tv boon or curse essay time, and doctora thesis how one can slowly evolve into another. And Socrates seemed pretty clear on one sobering point: that “tyranny is probably established out of no other regime than democracy.” What did Plato mean by that? Democracy, for him, I discovered, was a political system of maximal freedom and equality, where every lifestyle is allowed and public offices are filled by a lottery. And the longer a democracy lasted, Plato argued, the more democratic it would become. Its freedoms would multiply; its equality spread. Deference to any sort of authority would wither; tolerance of any kind of inequality would come under intense threat; and multiculturalism and sexual freedom would create a city or a country like “a many-colored cloak decorated in all hues.” This rainbow-flag polity, Plato argues, is, for annotated, many people, the fairest of regimes. The freedom in doctora thesis, that democracy has to be experienced to be believed — with shame and privilege in particular emerging over time as anathema. But it is inherently unstable.
As the thesis and contrast authority of doctora elites fades, as Establishment values cede to popular ones, views and identities can become so magnificently diverse as to critical on hamlet's madness, be mutually uncomprehending. And when all the barriers to equality, formal and informal, have been removed; when everyone is equal; when elites are despised and full license is established to do “whatever one wants,” you arrive at what might be called late-stage democracy. There is no kowtowing to authority here, let alone to political experience or expertise. The very rich come under attack, as inequality becomes increasingly intolerable. Patriarchy is doctora also dismantled: “We almost forgot to mention the extent of the law of equality and of freedom in massachusetts, the relations of women with men and men with women.” Family hierarchies are inverted: “A father habituates himself to be like his child and fear his sons, and a son habituates himself to be like his father and to have no shame before or fear of his parents.” In classrooms, “as the teacher … is thesis frightened of the writing summer camps massachusetts pupils and fawns on them, so the students make light of their teachers.” Animals are regarded as equal to humans; the rich mingle freely with the doctora thesis poor in the streets and try to usm college, blend in. The foreigner is equal to doctora thesis, the citizen.
And it is when a democracy has ripened as fully as this, Plato argues, that a would-be tyrant will often seize his moment. He is usually of the elite but has a nature in tune with the time — given over to random pleasures and usm college essay whims, feasting on plenty of food and sex, and reveling in the non-judgment that is democracy’s civil religion. He makes his move by “taking over a particularly obedient mob” and attacking his wealthy peers as corrupt. Doctora! If not stopped quickly, his appetite for attacking the rich on or curse behalf of the people swells further. He is a traitor to his class — and soon, his elite enemies, shorn of doctora thesis popular legitimacy, find a way to appease him or are forced to flee. Eventually, he stands alone, promising to cut through the paralysis of democratic incoherence. Critical Essays Madness! It’s as if he were offering the addled, distracted, and self-indulgent citizens a kind of relief from democracy’s endless choices and insecurities. He rides a backlash to excess—“too much freedom seems to change into nothing but too much slavery” — and offers himself as the personified answer to the internal conflicts of the democratic mess. He pledges, above all, to take on the increasingly despised elites.
And as the people thrill to him as a kind of solution, a democracy willingly, even impetuously, repeals itself. And so, as I chit-chatted over cocktails at a Washington office Christmas party in thesis, December, and saw, looming above our heads, the annotated pulsating, angry televised face of thesis Donald Trump on Fox News, I couldn’t help but feel a little nausea permeate my stomach. And as I watched frenzied Trump rallies on C-SPAN in the spring, and saw him lay waste to far more qualified political peers in the debates by simply calling them names, the nausea turned to dread. And when he seemed to condone physical violence as a response to bibliographies, political disagreement, alarm bells started to ring in my head. Doctora! Plato had planted a gnawing worry in my mind a few decades ago about the intrinsic danger of late-democratic life. It was increasingly hard not to see in Plato’s vision a murky reflection of our own hyper-democratic times and in Trump a demagogic, tyrannical character plucked directly out of one of the first books about politics ever written. Could it be that the Donald has emerged from the good thesis for compare and contrast populist circuses of pro wrestling and New York City tabloids, via reality television and Twitter, to prove not just Plato but also James Madison right, that democracies “have ever been spectacles of doctora turbulence and contention … and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths”? Is he testing democracy’s singular weakness — its susceptibility to the demagogue — by blasting through the firewalls we once had in good essay, place to prevent such a person from thesis, seizing power? Or am I overreacting?
Perhaps. The nausea comes and summer camps massachusetts goes, and there have been days when the news algorithm has actually reassured me that “peak Trump” has arrived. But it hasn’t gone away, and neither has Trump. In the wake of his most recent primary triumphs, at a time when he is perilously close to winning enough delegates to grab the Republican nomination outright, I think we must confront this dread and be clear about what this election has already revealed about the fragility of our way of life and the threat late-stage democracy is beginning to pose to itself. Plato, of course, was not clairvoyant. His analysis of how democracy can turn into tyranny is a complex one more keyed toward ancient societies than our own (and contains more wrinkles and eddies than I can summarize here). His disdain for democratic life was fueled in no small part by the fact that a democracy had executed his mentor, Socrates. And he would, I think, have been astonished at how American democracy has been able to thrive with unprecedented stability over the last couple of centuries even as it has brought more and more people into its embrace. It remains, in my view, a miracle of constitutional craftsmanship and cultural resilience.
There is doctora thesis no place I would rather live. But it is not immortal, nor should we assume it is immune to the forces that have endangered democracy so many times in good for compare and contrast essay, human history. Part of American democracy’s stability is owed to the fact that the Founding Fathers had read their Plato. Doctora Thesis! To guard our democracy from the tyranny of the majority and the passions of the mob, they constructed large, hefty barriers between the good and contrast essay popular will and the exercise of power. Voting rights were tightly circumscribed. The president and vice-president were not to be popularly elected but selected by an Electoral College, whose representatives were selected by the various states, often through state legislatures. Doctora! The Senate’s structure (with two members from every state) was designed to temper the power of the more populous states, and its term of office (six years, compared with two for the House) was designed to cool and restrain temporary populist passions. The Supreme Court, picked by critical the president and confirmed by the Senate, was the final bulwark against any democratic furies that might percolate up from the House and doctora thesis threaten the Constitution. Good Thesis For Compare And Contrast! This separation of powers was designed precisely to doctora thesis, create sturdy firewalls against tv boon essay, democratic wildfires.
Over the centuries, however, many of doctora thesis these undemocratic rules have been weakened or abolished. The franchise has been extended far beyond propertied white men. The presidency is now effectively elected through popular vote, with the Electoral College almost always reflecting the on hamlet's national democratic will. And these formal democratic advances were accompanied by informal ones, as the culture of democracy slowly took deeper root. For a very long time, only the elites of the political parties came to select their candidates at their quadrennial conventions, with the vote largely restricted to party officials from the various states (and often decided in, yes, smoke-filled rooms in large hotel suites). Beginning in the early 1900s, however, the parties began experimenting with primaries, and thesis after the chaos of the madness 1968 Democratic convention, today’s far more democratic system became the norm. Direct democracy didn’t just elect Congress and the president anymore; it expanded the thesis notion of who might be qualified for public office. Once, candidates built a career through experience in tv boon or curse, elected or Cabinet positions or as military commanders; they were effectively selected by peer review.
That elitist sorting mechanism has slowly imploded. In 1940, Wendell Willkie, a businessman with no previous political office, won the doctora Republican nomination for president, pledging to keep America out of war and boasting that his personal wealth inoculated him against corruption: “I will be under obligation to annotated bibliographies apa, nobody except the people.” He lost badly to Franklin D. Roosevelt, but nonetheless, since then, nonpolitical candidates have proliferated, from Ross Perot and Jesse Jackson, to Steve Forbes and Herman Cain, to this year’s crop of Ben Carson, Carly Fiorina, and, of course, Donald J. Doctora Thesis! Trump. This further widening of our democracy — our increased openness to being led by anyone; indeed, our accelerating preference for essays on hamlet's madness, outsiders — is now almost complete. The barriers to the popular will, especially when it comes to choosing our president, are now almost nonexistent. In 2000, George W. Bush lost the thesis popular vote and essay won the doctora thesis election thanks to Electoral College math and, more egregiously, to a partisan Supreme Court vote. Al Gore’s eventual concession spared the nation a constitutional crisis, but the episode generated widespread unease, not just among Democrats. And this year, the imagery in macbeth delegate system established by our political parties is also under assault.
Trump has argued that the doctora candidate with the most votes should get the Republican nomination, regardless of the rules in place. It now looks as if he won’t even need to win that argument — that he’ll bank enough delegates to secure the nomination uncontested — but he’s won it anyway. Fully half of Americans now believe the traditional nominating system is rigged. Many contend, of course, that American democracy is actually in retreat, close to being destroyed by creative writing massachusetts the vastly more unequal economy of the last quarter-century and the ability of the very rich to purchase political influence. This is doctora Bernie Sanders’s core critique. But the past few presidential elections have demonstrated that, in fact, money from the ultra-rich has been mostly a dud. Barack Obama, whose 2008 campaign was propelled by small donors and empowered by usm college essay the internet, blazed the trail of the modern-day insurrectionist, defeating the prohibitive favorite in the Democratic primary and later his Republican opponent (both pillars of doctora their parties’ Establishments and backed by moneyed elites).
In 2012, the fund-raising power behind Mitt Romney — avatar of the one percent — failed to dislodge Obama from office. And in this presidential cycle, the breakout candidates of both parties have soared without financial support from the annotated bibliographies apa elites. Sanders, who is sustaining his campaign all the way to California on the backs of small donors and thesis large crowds, is, to put it bluntly, a walking refutation of his own argument. Tv Boon! Trump, of course, is a largely self-funding billionaire — but like Willkie, he argues that his wealth uniquely enables him to resist the influence of the rich and their lobbyists. Those despairing over the influence of Big Money in American politics must also explain the thesis swift, humiliating demise of Jeb Bush and the struggling Establishment campaign of essay Hillary Clinton. The evidence suggests that direct democracy, far from being throttled, is actually intensifying its grip on American politics. None of this is thesis necessarily cause for alarm, even though it would be giving the bibliographies Founding Fathers palpitations. The emergence of the first black president — unimaginable before our more inclusive democracy — is miraculous, a strengthening, rather than weakening, of the system. The days when party machines just fixed things or rigged elections are mercifully done with. The way in which outsider candidates, from Obama to Trump and Sanders, have brought millions of new people into the electoral process is an unmitigated advance. The inclusion of previously excluded voices helps, rather than impedes, our public deliberation.
But it is precisely because of the great accomplishments of our democracy that we should be vigilant about its specific, unique vulnerability: its susceptibility, in stressful times, to the appeal of a shameless demagogue. What the 21st century added to this picture, it’s now blindingly obvious, was media democracy — in thesis, a truly revolutionary form. If late-stage political democracy has taken two centuries to ripen, the media equivalent took around two decades, swiftly erasing almost any elite moderation or control of our democratic discourse. The process had its origins in partisan talk radio at the end of the past century. The rise of the internet — an event so swift and pervasive its political effect is only now beginning to be understood — further democratized every source of information, dramatically expanded each outlet’s readership, and gave everyone a platform.
All the old barriers to entry — the cost of print and paper and distribution — crumbled. So much of this was welcome. I relished it myself in the early aughts, starting a blog and on hamlet's soon reaching as many readers, if not more, as some small magazines do. Fusty old-media institutions, grown fat and doctora thesis lazy, deserved a drubbing. The early independent blogosphere corrected facts, exposed bias, earned scoops. And as the medium matured, and as Facebook and Twitter took hold, everyone became a kind of creative summer massachusetts blogger. In ways no 20th-century journalist would have believed, we all now have our own virtual newspapers on our Facebook newsfeeds and Twitter timelines — picking stories from countless sources and creating a peer-to-peer media almost completely free of editing or interference by elites.
This was bound to make politics more fluid. Political organizing — calling a meeting, fomenting a rally to advance a cause — used to be extremely laborious. Now you could bring together a virtual mass movement with a single webpage. It would take you a few seconds. The web was also uniquely capable of absorbing other forms of doctora media, conflating genres and categories in ways never seen before. The distinction between politics and entertainment became fuzzier; election coverage became even more modeled on essay sportscasting; your Pornhub jostled right next to your mother’s Facebook page. Doctora! The web’s algorithms all but removed any editorial judgment, and the effect soon had cable news abandoning even the usm college pretense of asking “Is this relevant?” or “Do we really need to cover this live?” in doctora, the rush toward ratings bonanzas.
In the end, all these categories were reduced to one thing: traffic, measured far more accurately than any other medium had ever done before. And what mainly fuels this is precisely what the Founders feared about democratic culture: feeling, emotion, and writing summer massachusetts narcissism, rather than reason, empiricism, and public-spiritedness. Doctora Thesis! Online debates become personal, emotional, and irresolvable almost as soon as they begin. Godwin’s Law — it’s only a matter of time before a comments section brings up Hitler — is a reflection of the imagery essay collapse of the reasoned deliberation the Founders saw as indispensable to doctora, a functioning republic. Yes, occasional rational points still fly back and forth, but there are dramatically fewer elite arbiters to establish which of those points is actually true or valid or relevant. We have lost authoritative sources for even a common set of facts.
And without such common empirical ground, the emotional component of politics becomes inflamed and reason retreats even further. The more emotive the candidate, the essay more supporters he or she will get. Politically, we lucked out at first. Obama would never have been nominated for thesis, the presidency, let alone elected, if he hadn’t harnessed the power of the or curse web and the charisma of his media celebrity. But he was also, paradoxically, a very elite figure, a former state and U.S. Doctora! senator, a product of Harvard Law School, and, as it turned out, blessed with a preternaturally rational and annotated apa calm disposition. So he has masked, temporarily, the doctora thesis real risks in the system that his pioneering campaign revealed. Hence many Democrats’ frustration with him.
Those who saw in his campaign the seeds of revolutionary change, who were drawn to him by their own messianic delusions, came to be bitterly disappointed by his governing moderation and essay pragmatism. The climate Obama thrived in, however, was also ripe for far less restrained opportunists. In 2008, Sarah Palin emerged as proof that an ardent Republican, branded as an doctora thesis, outsider, tailor-made for good, reality TV, proud of her own ignorance about the world, and doctora thesis reaching an audience directly through online media, could also triumph in this new era. She was, it turned out, a John the Baptist for the true messiah of essays on hamlet's madness conservative populism, waiting patiently and strategically for his time to come. Trump, we now know, had been considering running for doctora thesis, president for decades. Those who didn’t see him coming — or kept treating him as a joke — had not yet absorbed the precedents of Obama and Palin or the creative camps massachusetts power of the new wide-open system to change the rules of the political game. Trump was as underrated for all of 2015 as Obama was in 2007 — and for the same reasons. He intuitively grasped the vanishing authority of American political and media elites, and he had long fashioned a public persona perfectly attuned to blast past them. Despite his immense wealth and inherited privilege, Trump had always cultivated a common touch. He did not hide his wealth in the late-20th century — he flaunted it in a way that connected with the doctora thesis masses. He lived the rich man’s life most working men dreamed of — endless glamour and women, for example — without sacrificing a way of talking about the world that would not be out of place on the construction sites he regularly toured.
His was a cult of thesis and contrast democratic aspiration. His 1987 book, The Art of the Deal , promised its readers a path to instant success; his appearances on doctora “The Howard Stern Show” cemented his appeal. His friendship with Vince McMahon offered him an early entree into the world of professional wrestling, with its fusion of sports and fantasy. Sleep Imagery In Macbeth Essay! He was a macho media superstar. One of the more amazing episodes in Sarah Palin’s early political life, in fact, bears this out. She popped up in the Anchorage Daily News as “a commercial fisherman from Wasilla” on April 3, 1996. Palin had told her husband she was going to Costco but had sneaked into J.C. Penney in Anchorage to see … one Ivana Trump, who, in the wake of her divorce, was touting her branded perfume. “We want to see Ivana,” Palin told the paper, “because we are so desperate in Alaska for any semblance of glamour and culture.” Trump assiduously cultivated this image and took to doctora, reality television as a natural.
Each week, for 14 seasons of The Apprentice, he would look someone in the eye and tell them, “You’re fired!” The conversation most humane bosses fear to have with an employee was something Trump clearly relished, and the cruelty became entertainment. Bibliographies! In retrospect, it is clear he was training — both himself and his viewers. If you want to understand why a figure so widely disliked nonetheless powers toward the election as if he were approaching a reality-TV-show finale, look no further. His television tactics, as applied to presidential debates, wiped out rivals used to a different game. And all our reality-TV training has conditioned us to hope he’ll win — or at least stay in thesis, the game till the final round.
In such a shame-free media environment, the assholes often win. In the critical on hamlet's madness end, you support them because they’re assholes. In Eric Hoffer’s classic 1951 tract, The True Believer , he sketches the dynamics of doctora thesis a genuine mass movement. He was thinking of the upheavals in Europe in the first half of the century, but the book remains sobering, especially now. Hoffer’s core insight was to locate the source of all truly mass movements in a collective sense of sleep imagery in macbeth essay acute frustration. Not despair, or revolt, or resignation — but frustration simmering with rage. Mass movements, he notes (as did Tocqueville centuries before him), rarely arise when oppression or misery is at its worst (say, 2009); they tend to appear when the worst is behind us but the doctora future seems not so much better (say, 2016). It is when a recovery finally gathers speed and some improvement is tangible but not yet widespread that the anger begins to rise. Essay! After the suffering of recession or unemployment, and despite hard work with stagnant or dwindling pay, the future stretches ahead with relief just out of reach. When those who helped create the doctora thesis last recession face no consequences but renewed fabulous wealth, the anger reaches a crescendo.
The deeper, long-term reasons for today’s rage are not hard to find, although many of us elites have shamefully found ourselves able to imagery in macbeth essay, ignore them. Doctora! The jobs available to the working class no longer contain the kind of craftsmanship or satisfaction or meaning that can take the sting out of annotated apa their low and stagnant wages. The once-familiar avenues for socialization — the doctora thesis church, the union hall, the VFW — have become less vibrant and social isolation more common. Annotated Apa! Global economic forces have pummeled blue-collar workers more relentlessly than almost any other segment of society, forcing them to compete against doctora, hundreds of millions of equally skilled workers throughout the summer camps massachusetts planet. No one asked them in the 1990s if this was the future they wanted.
And the impact has been more brutal than many economists predicted. Doctora! No wonder suicide and mortality rates among the white working poor are spiking dramatically. “It is usually those whose poverty is relatively recent, the ‘new poor,’ who throb with the ferment of frustration,” Hoffer argues. Fundamentalist religion long provided some emotional support for those left behind (for one thing, it invites practitioners to defy the elites as unholy), but its influence has waned as modernity has penetrated almost everything and the great culture wars of the 1990s and 2000s have ended in a rout. Or Curse! The result has been a more diverse mainstream culture — but also, simultaneously, a subculture that is doctora even more alienated and usm college despised, and doctora thesis ever more infuriated and bloody-minded. This is an age in which a woman might succeed a black man as president, but also one in which a member of the white working class has declining options to creative writing camps massachusetts, make a decent living. This is a time when gay people can be married in 50 states, even as working-class families are hanging by a thread. It’s a period in doctora thesis, which we have become far more aware of the in macbeth historic injustices that still haunt African-Americans and yet we treat the desperate plight of today’s white working class as an afterthought. Doctora Thesis! And so late-stage capitalism is creating a righteous, revolutionary anger that late-stage democracy has precious little ability to moderate or constrain — and has actually helped exacerbate. For the white working class, having had their morals roundly mocked, their religion deemed primitive, and critical essays their economic prospects decimated, now find their very gender and race, indeed the very way they talk about doctora, reality, described as a kind of problem for writing summer massachusetts, the nation to overcome. This is just one aspect of what Trump has masterfully signaled as “political correctness” run amok, or what might be better described as the newly rigid progressive passion for racial and doctora thesis sexual equality of outcome, rather than the liberal aspiration to mere equality of opportunity.
Much of the newly energized left has come to for compare essay, see the white working class not as allies but primarily as bigots, misogynists, racists, and homophobes, thereby condemning those often at doctora, the near-bottom rung of the economy to the bottom rung of the culture as well. A struggling white man in the heartland is now told to “check his privilege” by apa students at thesis, Ivy League colleges. Even if you agree that the privilege exists, it’s hard not to creative summer massachusetts, empathize with the doctora object of this disdain. Summer Massachusetts! These working-class communities, already alienated, hear — how can they not? — the doctora glib and easy dismissals of “white straight men” as the thesis and contrast essay ultimate source of all our woes. They smell the condescension and the broad generalizations about them — all of which would be repellent if directed at doctora, racial minorities — and see themselves, in creative writing, Hoffer’s words, “disinherited and injured by an unjust order of things.” And so they wait, and doctora thesis they steam, and they lash out. This was part of the emotional force of the tea party: not just the usm college essay advancement of thesis racial minorities, gays, and women but the simultaneous demonization of the sleep imagery in macbeth white working-class world, its culture and way of life.
Obama never intended this, but he became a symbol to many of this cultural marginalization. The Black Lives Matter left stoked the fires still further; so did the gay left, for whom the word magnanimity seems unknown, even in the wake of stunning successes. And as the tea party swept through Washington in doctora thesis, 2010, as its representatives repeatedly held the government budget hostage, threatened the very credit of the U.S., and refused to hold hearings on a Supreme Court nominee, the American political and media Establishment mostly chose to interpret such behavior as something other than unprecedented. But Trump saw what others didn’t, just as Hoffer noted: “The frustrated individual and the true believer make better prognosticators than those who have reason to creative writing, want the preservation of the status quo.” Mass movements , Hoffer argues, are distinguished by a “facility for doctora thesis, make-believe … credulity, a readiness to attempt the impossible.” What, one wonders, could be more impossible than suddenly vetting every single visitor to the U.S. for traces of Islamic belief? What could be more make-believe than a big, beautiful wall stretching across the entire Mexican border, paid for by the Mexican government?
What could be more credulous than arguing that we could pay off our national debt through a global trade war? In a conventional political party, and in a rational political discourse, such ideas would be laughed out of sleep imagery in macbeth essay contention, their self-evident impossibility disqualifying them from serious consideration. In the emotional fervor of a democratic mass movement, however, these impossibilities become icons of doctora thesis hope, symbols of a new way of conducting politics. Their very impossibility is their appeal. But the usm college most powerful engine for such a movement — the thing that gets it off the ground, shapes and solidifies and entrenches it — is always the evocation of thesis hatred. Tv Boon! It is, as Hoffer put it, “the most accessible and comprehensive of all unifying elements.” And so Trump launched his campaign by calling undocumented Mexican immigrants a population largely of rapists and murderers. He moved on to Muslims, both at home and abroad. He has now added to these enemies — with sly brilliance — the Republican Establishment itself. And what makes Trump uniquely dangerous in the history of American politics — with far broader national appeal than, say, Huey Long or George Wallace — is his response to all three enemies.
It’s the threat of blunt coercion and dominance. And so after demonizing most undocumented Mexican immigrants, he then vowed to round up and deport all 11 million of them by doctora thesis force. Sleep In Macbeth Essay! “They have to go” was the typically blunt phrase he used — and doctora somehow people didn’t immediately recognize the monstrous historical echoes. The sheer scale of the police and military operation that this policy would entail boggles the mind. Worse, he emphasized, after the bibliographies mass murder in San Bernardino, that even the Muslim-Americans you know intimately may turn around and massacre you at any juncture. “There’s something going on,” he declaimed ominously, giving legitimacy to the most hysterical and ugly of human impulses. To call this fascism doesn’t do justice to fascism. Fascism had, in some measure, an ideology and occasional coherence that Trump utterly lacks. But his movement is clearly fascistic in doctora, its demonization of foreigners, its hyping of a threat by a domestic minority (Muslims and Mexicans are the writing new Jews), its focus on thesis a single supreme leader of what can only be called a cult, and its deep belief in violence and coercion in a democracy that has heretofore relied on debate and persuasion. This is the Weimar aspect of our current moment.
Just as the English Civil War ended with a dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell, and usm college essay the French Revolution gave us Napoleon Bonaparte, and doctora thesis the unstable chaos of Russian democracy yielded to Vladimir Putin, and the most recent burst of Egyptian democracy set the creative writing summer massachusetts conditions for General el-Sisi’s coup, so our paralyzed, emotional hyper-democracy leads the stumbling, frustrated, angry voter toward the chimerical panacea of Trump. His response to his third vaunted enemy, the RNC, is also laced with the threat of violence. There will be riots in Cleveland if he doesn’t get his way. Doctora Thesis! The RNC will have “a rough time” if it doesn’t cooperate. “Paul Ryan, I don’t know him well, but I’m sure I’m going to thesis for compare essay, get along great with him,” Trump has said. “And if I don’t? He’s gonna have to pay a big price, okay?” The past month has seen delegates to the Cleveland convention receiving death threats; one of Trump’s hatchet men, Roger Stone, has already threatened to publish the hotel rooms of doctora thesis delegates who refuse to vote for Trump.
And what’s notable about Trump’s supporters is precisely what one would expect from members of a mass movement: their intense loyalty. Trump is their man, however inarticulate they are when explaining why. He’s tough, he’s real, and they’ve got his back, especially when he is attacked by usm college all the people they have come to despise: liberal Democrats and traditional Republicans. At rallies, whenever a protester is hauled out, you can almost sense the rising rage of the collective identity venting itself against a lone dissenter and finding a catharsis of thesis sorts in the brute force a mob can inflict on apa an individual. Trump tells the crowd he’d like to punch a protester in the face or have him carried out on doctora thesis a stretcher. No modern politician who has come this close to tv boon essay, the presidency has championed violence in this way. Doctora Thesis! It would be disqualifying if our hyper-democracy hadn’t already abolished disqualifications. And while a critical element of 20th-century fascism — its organized street violence — is missing, you can begin to see it in embryonic form. Creative Camps! The phalanx of thesis bodyguards around Trump grows daily; plainclothes bouncers in the crowds have emerged as pseudo-cops to contain the incipient unrest his candidacy will only continue to provoke; supporters have attacked hecklers with sometimes stunning ferocity.
Every time Trump legitimizes potential violence by his supporters by saying it comes from essay, a love of country, he sows the doctora seeds for serious civil unrest. Trump celebrates torture — the essays madness one true love of tyrants everywhere — not because it allegedly produces intelligence but because it has a demonstration effect. Thesis! At his rallies he has recounted the mythical acts of one General John J. Annotated! Pershing when confronted with an alleged outbreak of Islamist terrorism in doctora thesis, the Philippines. Pershing, in Trump’s telling, lines up 50 Muslim prisoners, swishes a series of bullets in the corpses of freshly slaughtered pigs, and orders his men to put those bullets in their rifles and kill 49 of the captured Muslim men. He spares one captive solely so he can go back and tell his friends. End of the terrorism problem. In some ways, this story contains all the elements of Trump’s core appeal. The vexing problem of tackling jihadist terror?
Torture and murder enough terrorists and they will simply go away. The complicated issue of creative summer camps undocumented workers, drawn by thesis jobs many Americans won’t take? Deport every single one of them and build a wall to stop the rest. Fuck political correctness. As one of critical on hamlet's madness his supporters told an obtuse reporter at a rally when asked if he supported Trump: “Hell yeah! He’s no-bullshit. All balls.
Fuck you all balls. That’s what I’m about.” And therein lies the appeal of tyrants from the beginning of thesis time. Fuck you all balls. Writing Summer Camps! Irrationality with muscle. The racial aspect of this is also unmissable. When the enemy within is Mexican or Muslim, and your ranks are extremely white, you set up a rubric for a racial conflict.
And what’s truly terrifying about Trump is that he does not seem to shrink from such a prospect; he relishes it. For, like all tyrants, he is utterly lacking in self-control. Sleeping a handful of hours a night, impulsively tweeting in the early hours, improvising madly on subjects he knows nothing about, Trump rants and raves as he surfs an entirely reactive media landscape. Once again, Plato had his temperament down: A tyrant is a man “not having control of himself [who] attempts to rule others”; a man flooded with fear and love and passion, while having little or no ability to restrain or moderate them; a “real slave to the greatest fawning,” a man who “throughout his entire life … is full of fear, overflowing with convulsions and pains.” Sound familiar? Trump is as mercurial and as unpredictable and as emotional as the daily Twitter stream.
And we are contemplating giving him access to doctora thesis, the nuclear codes. Those who believe that Trump’s ugly, thuggish populism has no chance of ever making it to the White House seem to me to be missing this dynamic. Essays On Hamlet's Madness! Neo-fascist movements do not advance gradually by doctora persuasion; they first transform the terms of the debate, create a new movement based on untrammeled emotion, take over existing institutions, and then ruthlessly exploit events. And so current poll numbers are only thesis reassuring if you ignore the potential impact of thesis sudden, external events — an economic downturn or a terror attack in a major city in the months before November. I have no doubt, for example, that Trump is sincere in his desire to “cut the head off” ISIS, whatever that can possibly mean. But it remains a fact that the interests of ISIS and the Trump campaign are now perfectly aligned. Fear is always the annotated would-be tyrant’s greatest ally. And though Trump’s unfavorables are extraordinarily high (around 65 percent), he is already showing signs of changing his tune, pivoting (fitfully) to the more presidential mode he envisages deploying in the general election. Thesis! I suspect this will, to some fools on the fence, come as a kind of relief, and may open their minds to him once more. Tyrants, like mob bosses, know the value of a smile: Precisely because of the usm college fear he’s already generated, you desperately want to believe in his new warmth. It’s part of the thesis good-cop-bad-cop routine that will be familiar to anyone who has studied the sleep essay presidency of Vladimir Putin.
With his appeal to his own base locked up, Trump may well also shift to more moderate stances on social issues like abortion (he already wants to doctora thesis, amend the or curse essay GOP platform to doctora, a less draconian position) or gay and even transgender rights. He is consistent in his inconsistency, because, for him, winning is what counts. He has had a real case against Ted Cruz — that the senator has no base outside ideological-conservative quarters and is even less likely to win a general election. More potently, Trump has a worryingly strong argument against creative summer camps massachusetts, Clinton herself — or “crooked Hillary,” as he now dubs her. His proposition is a simple one. Remember James Carville’s core question in the 1992 election: Change versus more of the same? That sentiment once elected Clinton’s husband; it could also elect her opponent this fall. If you like America as it is, vote Clinton.
After all, she has been a member of the doctora thesis American political elite for a quarter-century. Clinton, moreover, has shown no ability to sleep essay, inspire or rally anyone but her longtime loyalists. She is doctora thesis lost in the new media and has struggled to put away a 74-year-old socialist who is barely a member of or curse her party. Her own unfavorables are only thesis 11 points lower than Trump’s (far higher than Obama’s, John Kerry’s, or Al Gore’s were at this point in the race), and the more she campaigns, the higher her unfavorables go (including in her own party). Essay! She has a Gore problem. The idea of welcoming her into doctora thesis, your living room for the next four years can seem, at bibliographies, times, positively masochistic. It may be that demographics will save us.
America is no longer an overwhelmingly white country, and Trump’s signature issue — illegal immigration — is the source of his strength but also of his weakness. Nonetheless, it’s worth noting how polling models have consistently misread the doctora thesis breadth of his support, especially in these past few weeks; he will likely bend over creative backward to include minorities in his fall campaign; and those convinced he cannot bring a whole new swath of white voters back into the political process should remember 2004, when Karl Rove helped engineer anti-gay-marriage state constitutional amendments that increased conservative voter turnout. All Trump needs is doctora a sliver of minority votes inspired by in macbeth the new energy of doctora his campaign and good for compare and contrast the alleged dominance of the Obama coalition could crack (especially without Obama). Throughout the West these past few years, from France to Britain and doctora thesis Germany, the polls have kept missing the apa power of right-wing insurgency. Were Trump to thesis, win the White House, the usm college defenses against him would be weak. He would likely bring a GOP majority in the House, and thesis Republicans in the Senate would be subjected to thesis for compare essay, almighty popular fury if they stood in his way. The 4-4 stalemate in the Supreme Court would break in Trump’s favor. (In large part, of thesis course, this would be due to the GOP’s unprecedented decision to hold a vacancy open “for the people to writing camps massachusetts, decide,” another massive hyper-democratic breach in doctora, our constitutional defenses.) And if Trump’s policies are checked by other branches of government, how might he react? Just look at his response to creative writing, the rules of the GOP nomination process.
He’s not interested in rules. And he barely understands the Constitution. In one revealing moment earlier this year, when asked what he would do if the military refused to obey an illegal order to torture a prisoner, Trump simply insisted that the man would obey: “They won’t refuse. They’re not going to refuse, believe me.” He later amended his remark, but it speaks volumes about his approach to power. Dick Cheney gave illegal orders to torture prisoners and coerced White House lawyers to cook up absurd “legal” defenses. Trump would make Cheney’s embrace of the dark side and doctora thesis untrammeled executive power look unambitious.
In his 1935 novel , It Can’t Happen Here , Sinclair Lewis wrote a counterfactual about what would happen if fascism as it was then spreading across Europe were to triumph in thesis and contrast essay, America. It’s not a good novel, but it remains a resonant one. The imagined American fascist leader — a senator called Buzz Windrip — is a “Professional Common Man … But he was the Common Man twenty-times-magnified by his oratory, so that while the other Commoners could understand his every purpose, which was exactly the same as their own, they saw him towering among them, and they raised hands to him in worship.” He “was vulgar, almost illiterate, a public liar easily detected, and in his ‘ideas’ almost idiotic.” “ ‘I know the Press only too well,’ ” Windrip opines at one point. “ ‘Almost all editors hide away in spider-dens, men without thought of Family or Public Interest … plotting how they can put over thesis their lies, and advance their own positions and fill their greedy pocketbooks.’ ” He is obsessed with the balance of writing camps trade and promises instant economic success: “ ‘I shall not be content till this country can produce every single thing we need … We shall have such a balance of trade as will go far to carry out my often-criticized yet completely sound idea of from $3000 to $5000 per year for every single family.’ ” However fantastical and empty his promises, he nonetheless mesmerizes the party faithful at the nominating convention (held in Cleveland!): “Something in doctora thesis, the intensity with which Windrip looked at his audience, looked at essay, all of doctora thesis them, his glance slowly taking them in from the or curse highest-perched seat to the nearest, convinced them that he was talking to each individual, directly and solely; that he wanted to take each of them into his heart; that he was telling them the truths, the thesis imperious and dangerous facts, that had been hidden from them.” And all the elites who stood in his way? Crippled by their own failures, demoralized by their crumbling stature, they first mock and then cave.
As one lone journalist laments before the election (he finds himself in a concentration camp afterward): “I’ve got to annotated, keep remembering … that Windrip is only the lightest cork on the whirlpool. He didn’t plot all this thing. With all the justified discontent there is against the smart politicians and the Plush Horses of Plutocracy — oh, if it hadn’t been one Windrip, it’d been another … We had it coming, we Respectables.” And, 81 years later, many of us did. An American elite that has presided over massive and increasing public debt, that failed to prevent 9/11, that chose a disastrous war in the Middle East, that allowed financial markets to doctora thesis, nearly destroy the tv boon or curse global economy, and that is now so bitterly divided the thesis Congress is effectively moot in a constitutional democracy: “We Respectables” deserve a comeuppance. The vital and valid lesson of the writing Trump phenomenon is doctora thesis that if the elites cannot govern by compromise, someone outside will eventually try to govern by popular passion and brute force. But elites still matter in a democracy.
They matter not because they are democracy’s enemy but because they provide the critical ingredient to save democracy from itself. Imagery Essay! The political Establishment may be battered and demoralized, deferential to the algorithms of the web and to the monosyllables of a gifted demagogue, but this is not the time to give up on America’s near-unique and stabilizing blend of democracy and elite responsibility. The country has endured far harsher times than the present without succumbing to rank demagoguery; it avoided the fascism that destroyed Europe; it has channeled extraordinary outpourings of democratic energy into thesis, constitutional order. It seems shocking to argue that we need elites in this democratic age — especially with vast inequalities of wealth and elite failures all around us. Good Essay! But we need them precisely to thesis, protect this precious democracy from its own destabilizing excesses. And so those Democrats who are gleefully predicting a Clinton landslide in November need to both check their complacency and good thesis for compare and contrast essay understand that the Trump question really isn’t a cause for partisan Schadenfreude anymore. It’s much more dangerous than that. Those still backing the demagogue of the left, Bernie Sanders, might want to reflect that their critique of Clinton’s experience and expertise — and their facile conflation of that with corruption — is only playing into Trump’s hands. That it will fall to Clinton to thesis, temper her party’s ambitions will be uncomfortable to watch, since her willingness to compromise and equivocate is writing camps massachusetts precisely what many Americans find so distrustful. And yet she may soon be all we have left to counter the threat. She needs to grasp the lethality of her foe, moderate the doctora kind of identity politics that unwittingly empowers him, make an unapologetic case that experience and moderation are not vices, address much more directly the usm college essay anxieties of the white working class—and Democrats must listen.
More to the point, those Republicans desperately trying to use the long-standing rules of doctora their own nominating process to thwart this monster deserve our passionate support, not our disdain. This is not the moment to remind them that they partly brought this on themselves. This is a moment to offer solidarity, especially as the odds are increasingly stacked against them. Ted Cruz and John Kasich faced their decisive battle in Indiana on May 3. It was the bitter end. Creative Summer Camps Massachusetts! The Republican delegates who are trying to protect their party from the whims of an outsider demagogue are, at this moment, doing what they ought to be doing to prevent civil and racial unrest, an thesis, international conflict, and a constitutional crisis. These GOP elites have every right to deploy whatever rules or procedural roadblocks they can muster, and they should refuse to be intimidated. And if they fail in Indiana or Cleveland, as they likely will, they need, quite simply, to disown their party’s candidate. They should resist any temptation to loyally back the nominee or to sit this election out. They must take the fight to Trump at essay, every opportunity, unite with Democrats and Independents against him, and be prepared to sacrifice one election in order to save their party and their country. For Trump is not just a wacky politician of the far right, or a riveting television spectacle, or a Twitter phenom and doctora bizarre working-class hero. He is not just another candidate to good and contrast, be parsed and analyzed by TV pundits in the same breath as all the others.
In terms of our liberal democracy and constitutional order, Trump is an extinction-level event. Doctora! It’s long past time we started treating him as such. *This article appeared in the May 2, 2016 issue of tv boon New York Magazine. Well, it’s shit. That’s right, shit! Shit may just be the most functional word in the English language. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget shit, and doctora tell others to eat shit. Some people know their shit, while others can’t tell the difference between shit and creative summer camps massachusetts shineola.
There are lucky shits, dumb shits, and crazy shits. There is doctora thesis bull shit, horse shit, and chicken shit. You can throw shit, sling shit, catch shit, shoot the shit, or duck when the on hamlet's shit hits the fan. You can give a shit or serve shit on a shingle. You can find yourself in deep shit or be happier than a pig in shit.
Some days are colder than shit, some days are hotter than shit, and some days are just plain shitty. Some music sounds like shit, things can look like shit, and there are times when you feel like shit. You can have too much shit, not enough shit, the right shit, the doctora wrong shit or a lot of weird shit. You can carry shit, have a mountain of shit, or find yourself up shit creek without a paddle. Sometimes everything you touch turns to shit and other times you fall in a bucket of shit and come out smelling like a rose. When you stop to consider all the facts, it’s the essay basic building block of the English language.
And remember, once you know your shit, you don’t need to know anything else!! You could pass this along, if you give a shit; or not do so if you don’t give a shit! Life Alert Necklaces and the Dinosaur. by Lee Ann Bledsoe. CAMERA FOCUSES in on doctora an old woman sprawled on annotated her living room floor. “Help me! Help me!” she cries. “I’ve fallen and I can’t get up.” Camera zooms in to thesis, capture the woman’s tear-stained face. She looks needy and helpless as she grovels on the floor. For God’s sake , I think, put her down!
Euthanazia. A club. Find a zombie. Anything to get the whining to bibliographies, stop! CAMERA PANS the room and captures the terrified faces of two young children as they run to grandma’s side. “Grandma, grandma, are you okay?” the youngest one cries. Grandma repeats: “Help me! Help, me! I’ve fallen and I can’t get up!” The kids already know she’s fallen; grandma’s on the fucking floor for God’s sake! Evidently the old woman wants her grandkids traumatized for life as well as terrified in this moment. Then a compassionate, soothing voice begins the sales pitch: “Life Alert necklaces … blah, blah, blah.”
I absolutely DETEST commercials that prey on our fears to doctora, sell stuff. Sleep In Macbeth Essay! So can you imagine how pissed I am that I’m probably going to have to buy a device that advertises to the world I’m so old and thesis feeble I need a team of experts to essays on hamlet's madness, help me survive my next fall? I fell tonight. Two of my great grandkids were with me: Chrissy is three and James Mervin is 18 months. I tripped over Fancy Puzzles, a cat who lives with me but belongs to someone else. (Fancy’s another story.) Anyway, Chrissie was terrified. She panicked and screamed, then cried for 30 minutes.
I felt horrible for scaring her so badly. And I wasn’t even hurt. My three great grandkids spend a lot of time ay my house but the youngest two are with me five days a week. I don’t mean to brag–or maybe I do–but I am the best great grandmother on the planet. What would happen if I had hurt myself? What would happen if I had a stroke? No neighbor’s house to run to; all the houses around me sit empty nine or 10 months of the year. My internet and phone (a landline) are out as much as on during the stormy season. Maybe I should get another cell phone?
I have seven or eight of the damn things now, sitting in the bottom drawer of my desk. My kids and grandkids keep buying them for me. Doctora! I’m always grateful for the new device; absolutely thrilled to own a gadget that would allow everyone in the world to reach me, anytime of the day or night, anywhere I might happen to be. I can’t imagine anything more intrusive. How do people stand it? Nevertheless, I thank the kids sweetly, play around with the latest phone until the essay battery dies, and then add it to my growing collection. But I might have to reconsider; can a three-year-old kid use a cell phone? Or should I order one of those Life Alert necklaces? At this point in my life, I’d rather fitted for Depends.
Why couldn’t the commercial have the old woman climbing a ladder, preparing to clean her gutters? I do that twice a year. She could fondle the necklace, look squarely into the camera and say in doctora, a strong voice: “This will come in handy if I fuck this up.” I could buy into a commercial like that. Lee Ann Bledsoe says: “I was a fairly successful professional writer 100 years ago working as a columnist for “The Oregonian” and “The Columbian,” writing humorous verse for several greeting card companies, and freelancing for or curse, “Alcoholism” and “Health” magazines. Went back to school to earn a degree in fine arts, got sidetracked and ended up graduating four years later with a masters in sociology. Doctora Thesis! For the critical essays madness next three decades I worked in community mental health, specializing in the DMIO (“dangerously mentally ill offender”) population.
Fun group. One of those guys took a real dislike to me in doctora, May of 2011, effectively ending my career and the bleeding heart phase of my life. I’m extremely grateful he didn’t end me, as well. Now I’m writing again. I’ve just finished “The Unlikely Survivalist,” the first book in a three book series. Other than that, I hate liver–even smothered in onions–love dogs, gardening without gloves, reading and or curse essay writing.”