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Parents As Role Models Education Essay. The reason for the choice to study a child's perceptions of their parents was influenced by doctoral abstracts, previous research (REF), finding parents to be the most influential social agent during childhood. This study attempts to grading contribute to knowledge by examining parental influence over abstracts, a child's lifetime, as, to the authors knowledge, this has not been extensively analysed. Previous research (REF) has largely focused on the impact of parents during the early years of a child's lifetime sport involvement, as it is thesis argued that other social agents (e.g. peers, teachers and coaches), are more influential during the later stages of a child's life. In order to fulfil the current study's objectives the researcher conducted a study that assessed the way that parents' beliefs and the motivational climate that they create, can influence or affect their child's choices, attitudes and motivation towards sport and exercise. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding the perceived parent-created motivational climate, from an abstracts, adult-child's perspective. Essay Needs Change. Socialisation influences from parents, and doctoral thesis social-cognitive perspectives were used to direct the research and essay beach ultimately influence the design for the interview guide. The first set of questions attempted to establish the degree of role modelling demonstrated by parents, and whether this had a positive or negative effect on their child's choices and attitudes towards sport and exercise. Questions such as Does/did your mum and dad play any sports? and Is your mum/dad involved with coaching any sports to you or another organisation?; were asked in order to doctoral establish the type of sport (if any) that the child's parents were involved with, in order to ascertain any correlations between the child's chosen sport and that of writing primary, their parents. Responses to these questions were mixed, therefore finding little or no link between parent and doctoral thesis abstracts child activity habits. CHANGE THIS TO MIXED BUT MORE SAID THAT PARENTS WERE ACTIVE?
The narratives below from Participants 3 and 4 respectively, reflect the essay picnic beach range of opinions regarding parents as role models: EL: Did your mum and dad play any sports from what you can remember? P1: Um. Abstracts. yes my mum was netball and hockey, my dad did cross country; and they both go to the gym all of the essay system needs time. EL: Oh, so their quite athletic? P1: Yes quite athletic yes, they probably go to the gym two, three times a week.
Despite the variety in response to parents as role models, findings also suggested that if parents were involved with coaching a sport, it generally tended to be the same sport that their child was involved with. Doctoral Thesis. This implies that parents can influence their child's choices towards a similar, if not the same sport that they are involved with. Additionally, in the instance where a parent took on the role of the thesis acknowledgement page sports coach; results demonstrated a strong trend, revealing that the father would be the parent who would take on this coaching role. The two examples below from participant 1 and abstracts participant 3 respectively, illustrate this point: EL: Cool. Um. so is your mum and automated grading system dad involved with coching any sports to doctoral thesis you or any other youngsters? P1: Um. my mum isn't but when, well i used to divorce has on children play basketball a few years ago and my dad used to help coach the team so, when i was younger about 14/15. EL: Ok. Doctoral Thesis Abstracts. Um. Beach. are they involved, either of them involved in coaching any sports to you or anyone else? P3: Um. my dad used to be a coach for; well he used to coach the swimming club that I used to swim for. These findings illustrate that the child perceives their parents to be actively involved with sport, either through participation or coaching.
Dixon et al (2008) recognised that parents are the most influential social agents for thesis abstracts, children. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that their role modelling behaviour would see them involved in dissertation preuve sport by either competing or participating in doctoral thesis physical activity themselves or by coaching, in essay on examination system change order to lead by example and thus influence their child's choices towards sport and exercise. Previous to this, Bandura proposed the 'Social Learning Theory' (1986), which claimed that parents exhibit behaviours that children may later imitate. In addition, Bandura maintained that the task of learning would be a most tedious task if there was reliance solely on the effects of the learner's own actions. This therefore identifies that there is a heavy reliance on role models (e.g. Doctoral Thesis. parent's) to demonstrate desirable behaviours, for example: participating in regular physical activity, and finding enjoyment in sport. It is page also important to doctoral thesis abstracts stress to parents that they only have a limited time in which to demonstrate this role modelling behaviour ,since that, as children grow older they spend the majority of their day outside of direct parental contact (Welk et al., 2003). Automated Essay. Welk (2003) also recognised the thesis abstracts need to dissertation scientifique distinguish between positive and doctoral negative forms of role modelling in order to better explain this construct. Acknowledgement Page. Although participants from the present study were not affected by negative role modelling; social agents (e.g. teachers, peers, sporting heroes and doctoral thesis parents alike) will need to take this into consideration in practice, when conducting themselves as role models, so that children are not influenced by negative behaviours. On What Divorce Has On Children. For example, a sedentary parent may model inactive, unhealthy behaviours; therefore demonstrating to doctoral abstracts their child that this kind of lifestyle is acceptable.
MIGHT NEED A CONCLUDING SENTANCE HERE. Parents as Providers of the Experience. Parents can serve as role models not only by participating in the activity or sport themselves but also by providing the essay picnic with sports participation experiences for children through transport, funding and spectating at their sporting events. Results from this study regarding the participants' perceptions of their parents' sport involvement were mixed; with some viewing their parents as active, whereas others did not view their parents to be athletic at all. Nevertheless, it is possible that parents demonstrate role modelling characteristics (i.e. transmitting beliefs and values) through other means of support such as transport, funding and general encouragement to doctoral thesis abstracts join clubs and writing a book become active. It is also possible that due to the amount of time parents devote to their child's sport involvement (e.g. transporting them to and from events, and doctoral thesis working in dissertation order to be able afford to invest in doctoral thesis their child's sporting future through membership and equipment); that they actually have little time left for themselves in order to participate competitively. Thus, for this reason it is understandable that the majority of participants stated that their parents do not currently participate in physical activity and some who ascertain that their parents have never been overly athletics. With this in mind, the additional ways in writing school which parents can demonstrate their role modelling behaviour, will be discussed under three separate headings: Game attendance, transport and funding, and doctoral thesis abstracts encouragement/ importance placed on sport. In order to investigate how the presence of a parent at competition, influenced the participants attitudes towards that event, questions regarding parental sideline support and attendance at school or club fixtures were raised. Essay Picnic With At The. Results illustrated a general trend, demonstrating that at abstracts least one parent would be present at every competition. Picnic At The. All participants considered parental support through competition attendance as extremely important.
The following narratives from thesis, participants 4 and 5 respectively, demonstrate the acknowledgement importance to those individuals. EL: Ok. With regards to parental support now, and attendance. Did you mum or dad ever attend your school fixtures? After-school clubs. P4: Um. they, i wouldn't say in secondary school but in primary school they would be at, well there to support. EL: Yea. Do you think, what do you think that is because of? Do you think maybe they thought you needed them? P4: Um, i guess when your younger its nice to abstracts have your parent on the sideline, haha, sort of grading system, cheering you on. EL: Yea ok.
Um. in what ways was them being at your competitions important to you? Did you like having them there or not? P4: Yea, because then you know that there is someone definitely watching you when your swimming or doing a competition, i don't know, its nice to feel that someone is there looking on and they will be proud of you. EL: Ok. Um. was this important to you. Did you like having them there or? P5: Um. I liked having my dad there because he was like a personal coach, he helped me through all things like; it was good when he was there because he could tell me what was going right and wrong.
Scanlan (1996) predicted that during the early years, parents are likely to be present at their children's games and doctoral thesis sport fixtures; therefore giving them ample opportunity to express their values and paper effects divorce children beliefs of sport to their children. The results support this hypothesis as all participants view parental support through game attendance as a dominant influence to doctoral thesis abstracts their sport involvement choices. The next point of discussion relates to the degree of support that parent's demonstrate through the provision of transport and funding, in order for their child to attend clubs and take part in sport. Findings generated a general concencus amoungst the primary school participant's, that financial parental support is imperative during the early stages of doctoral, development; but drops off significantly when a child reaches adulthood, as they will usually find a part time job and begin to fund themselves. Participant's also identified parents as the key providers of essay with family at the beach, support in the form of transport to and from training and abstracts competition. This type of support could also become less important to the child as they grow older; as the coming of age brings multiple oppourtunities for writing report primary school, the child to become increasingly indepedant, for abstracts, example learning to drive so that they could then transport themselves to their sporting fixtures. Picnic At The. This was reflected through the thesis abstracts responses given by participant 1 and participant 8, as shown below: EL: Ok, and did that, did you find that changed when you got older at paper page all? P1: Um. well when i learnt to drive i started driving myself to training and things, so i paid for the petrol and stuff so that was like less money for doctoral abstracts, them to spend but, they still paid for membership and things so. EL: Ok, um, ok alrite with regards to transport and funding, um desbribe how your mum and dad supported you with regards to transport to and from training and matches?
P8: They took me to, obviously training before i could drive, um. to where i had to be picked up to go to matches and automated essay grading system stuff, they took me everywhere. EL: Ok, but um. Doctoral Abstracts. once you started driving. P8: I drove myself. Conclusively, parents were the key providers for both transport and funding. The findings support the views of Eccles et al (1998), pronouncing that parent time and paper financial investment are positive predictors of children's achievements in doctoral academic and non-acedemic contexts. A reason for this may possibly be a matter of respect and appreciation from the children; wanting to give something back to their parents for all their devotion, hard work and investment that allowed them to participate in their chosen activities.
There are various ways in which parents can financially provide positive experiences; such as, enrolling their child in athletic memberships and purchasing equipment for their child's skill development (Green and Chalip, 1998). Synder and Purdy (1982) acknowledged that active parents provide more equipment and support for their children in sports than inactive parents. The current study presents conflicting evidence to reject such claims; indicating that despite the parents' varied sporting backgrounds and diverse physical activity levels, the support demonstrated to their child was not at a lesser degree just because the parents were not active themselves. For example, participant 2 described their parents as Not very athletic; however this child responded positively to the questions regarding their parental support through transport and funding, claiming that They always used to take me and They still pay for me now. This demonstrates that the writing report primary school degree of parental support was just as strong regardless of the parents' activity levels. NEED TO WRITE WHY I THINK THIS WAS FOUND? In order to make a definitive conclusion with regards to this area; further studies will need to be conducted whereby an even split of participants with active and doctoral thesis inactive parents are invited to take part in the study. This will then allow for two separate sets of data to be collected on the support that those with active parents receive and the support that those with inactive parents perceive to be available to system them; thus allowing for doctoral thesis abstracts, a more succinct comparison in order to scientifique validate or decline previous literature. STAY HERE OR MOVE TO LIMITATIONS?
Encouragement/importance placed on sport. The third sub-category of questions concerning 'parents as providers of experience'; aimed to establish the doctoral thesis abstracts degree of encouragement into sport that the participant's experienced by their parent's, and the perceived importance that their parents placed on automated essay system participation in sport and exercise. The discussion centred around the participants' description of how their parents first recognised their interest in sport; whilst also commenting on thesis the degree of pressure placed on them by their parents, in order to paper page compete. The responses demonstrated an agreement between the participants' in that none of them felt pressured to thesis abstracts compete by their parents, but they did experience pressure to train. Reasoning for this, suggests that; parents have invested their time and money into their child's sport involvement, therefore, in addition to supporting and encouraging their child they want to make sure that this is a worthwhile investment. Lavoi and Stellino (2008, p472) support this, believing that 'children maintain certain expectations of automated grading, themselves based largely on the influence of their parents'. With reference to the current study, as a result of their parent's financial investments; participants have perceived an expectation of them to train hard, in order to demonstrate to doctoral abstracts their parents that their money is with family at the well spent.
Below, participant 2 and participant 8, account for the pressure that was placed upon them to perform due to the sacrifices that their parent's had made: P2: i always felt the further we had to travel to doctoral abstracts get to a competition, because remember before i could drive she was the one who would always ferry me around the country. P2: . the longer we had to thesis drive, that was when she put most pressure on thesis abstracts me. EL: Ok, um. so did you ever feel pressured to compete by your mum and system dad? P8: Um, at school level i did because if i was training after school and they wanted me to play in the matches and the tournaments and thesis abstracts things and then try and go on and play as well as you can. EL: Yea, so was there ever times that you didn't want to do it, but you did it because you thought 'my mum wants me to'? P8: Yea, sometimes at club hockey aswell because i'd paid the membership they were like well if i've paid the membership then you have obviously got to play, and go training and things.
Regardless of the pressure that was experienced; findings recognized parents as valuable agents who will nurture their child's aspirations through the safeguarding and support of their choices. All participant's agreed that their sports choices were supported by their parents, some even viewed the picnic family beach encouragement into sport by their parents as a reason for their continuation in sport. This confirms the role that parents play in doctoral abstracts introducing their child into sport; indicating that parents serve as an important motivational tool in essay grading their child's sport involvement, by initially encouraging them to attend a club and to maintain their training once they have established an interest in a specific sport. Therefore, considering the abstracts participants' intrinsic interest in sport, it is picnic with family not known how parents would have reacted to a drop out or withdrawal in sports participation, as all of the participants are still currently involved in doctoral thesis sport. It is reasonable to assume that parents would not support their child's decision to drop out of essay with beach, sport due to thesis abstracts their athletic ability and lifestyle they have developed.
It is also possible that parents would object to a drop out from sport as they would feel that their efforts and sacrifices in order to support their child (e.g. financial sacrifices and giving up their time in order to transport their child) have been wasted. A longitudinal analysis of primary, parental support and its impact. In addition to the current findings, an examination into the degree of parental support on abstracts a child's sport involvement over their life-course was conducted. The questions were specifically designed in order to obtain information from three key age ranges: Primary Childhood Perceptions (earliest age of recall age 11) Adolescent Perceptions (age 11 18) Present Perceptions (where you are now) The results obtained from Primary Childhood Perceptions indicate that parents play an report, important role in preparing their child for competition; by helping them to organise their equipment and provisions that they will need in order to doctoral compete. The majority of essay system needs, participants recognised that this role of doctoral abstracts, support (in the grading system form of preparing packed lunches and clean clothes for their child), was primarily adopted by doctoral, their mother. A reason for this could be that; women have historically taken on automated essay the domestic role within the doctoral thesis household, caring for their families needs on an everyday basis.
Although nowadays, the effects has on domestic role appears to be shared more equally between mothers and fathers, therefore suggesting that either parent could be the provider of this type of support; many of women's occupations still see them demonstrating extensions of their early domestic roles, with traditional women's jobs originating from the tertiary sector and thesis often involving nurturing, service and support roles: for example teachers of small children and nurses (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, 2003). In contrast, results reveal that during the adolescent stage of a child's development; participants commented that they were still provided for by their parents, however the task of preparing their equipment so that they were ready to compete, was now almost entirely the responsibility of the child. This is supported by the transition into secondary school that children experience during the adolescent stage of their development; as this too will increase a child's independance, for instance, increased management over their school and homework tasks (Brannen, Heptinstall and Bhopal, 2000). On Examination System Needs. This is reflected in practice, whereby coaches can give older children the responsibility over certain tasks during the training session; for example to organise a game or skill practice. Responsibilities can also be shared with regards to a person's role within the team, for example team captain.
With reference to competition attendance, participants noted that at least one of thesis, their parents would always be present. It was not found that one parent would be present more than the other; although it was noted that fathers tend to take on more of a coaching role, whereas, mothers (although still there to essay grading system support), would socialise with other parents. QUOTES AS EXAMPLES. The results also disclose that parents are not as vocal during the primary stage of their childhood competitions, compared to doctoral thesis abstracts those events during the adolescent stage. Results established that during the primary age of childhood, parents would focus primarily upon essay grading system the fun and enjoyment obtained from thesis, partaking in physical activity; whereas as their child got older, they would become more outcome focused.
Nevertheless, participants still perceived their parents to adopt an enjoyment focused attitude, but their focus on a research on what winning was now much greater than the doctoral thesis younger years. SAY SOMETHING HERE ABOUT PARENTS KNOWING THAT THEIR CHILD ALREADY ENJOYS THE ACTIVITY BECAUSE OF THE CONTINUED INVOLVEMENT FROM WHEN THEY WERE YOUNG. Parents are particularly influential in encouraging children to thesis acknowledgement page participate in sport and. Although this study reproduces certain findings from previous investigations, it also adds further understanding to the impact of parent-child socialisation upon an adult-child's sport involvement. The study differentiates itself from much of the previous studies by abstracts, examining how early childhood socialisation experiences shape an writing a book, adult's choices and abstracts behaviours towards sport. Findings clearly indicate that parental influence through socialization is a book primary critical; as parents can communicate their beliefs about what is valued as important, and; as children are positively influenced by thesis abstracts, what their parents value, they are more likely to essay on examination system change take steps in order to abstracts carry out such activities. A Research On What Effects Divorce Children. This also confirms that socialisation is a two-way process between provider and recipient (Greendorfer Bruce, 1991; Nixon, 1990). Welk et al., (2003) observed constant trends in their data; suggesting that active parents are more likely to be supportive and involved in their child's efforts at being physically active, compared to inactive parents. However, it is important to recognise that the individuals who took part in the current study were all sports students who naturally had an intrinsic interest in sport and an understanding and thesis abstracts appreciation for the importance of regular physical activity.
Thus, even though parental encouragement and support during their lifetime sport involvement has been proved to be indispensible, it was also recognised that for some, the interest may have already been there due to the natural sporting tendencies that the essay on examination system change participants' possessed.
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Food Security or Food Sovereignty: the Case of Land Grabs Essay. The last decade has witnessed a serious change in the distribution and accessibility of food. In 2010 Ethiopia was home to 2.8 million people in thesis need of emergency food aid; yet this country had concurrently sold more than 600,000 hectares of agricultural land to transnational companies that export the majority of their produce (Reuters, 2011; Economist, 2009; Green, 2011). A Research Divorce Has On Children. Ethiopia remains a country facing great food insecurity, which is a lack of access to thesis abstracts sufficient, safe and nutritious food (WHO, 2011); a paradigm that focuses upon the financial and distributive aspects of thesis providing food. Doctoral Abstracts. Although Ethiopia is just one of many countries facing this dilemma, it illustrates how the issue of food sovereignty is a research effects becoming increasingly as important as that of food security. This paper will address the role that sovereignty plays in light of doctoral thesis abstracts mass foreign acquisition of land in dissertation countries which face high levels of food insecurity. The importance of food security and food sovereignty will be exemplified within the context of ‘land grabbing’ in a demonstrative case study of Ethiopia. Security or Sovereignty? The difference between food security and food sovereignty may seem like mere semantics, but in the hyper-globalized world wherein transnational companies may privately own significant portions of arable land in countries facing food insecurity, it is thesis abstracts not just a matter of word play. Thesis Paper Acknowledgement. When these companies choose to export the entire crop grown on such lands and when the farmland has been taken from doctoral, uncompensated smallholder farmers.
Disparity of wealth and land ownership is not a new phenomenon. However, the degree to which agricultural lands are owned within areas of picnic at the food insecurity makes food sovereignty as vital a factor as food security. An analysis of doctoral thesis these concepts and their global implications is pressing, as over 963 million people do not have enough to eat. Most of them live in developing countries, and sixty-five percent of them live in only seven countries: China, India, Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia (FAO, 2011). Furthermore, each year more people die due to hunger and malnutrition than to AIDS, tuberculosis, and thesis paper acknowledgement page malaria combined (Global Food Security, 2011a). The World Food Summit, held in 1996, declared that ideal food security includes the global population, whereby all people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food, encompassing both the physical availability and the economic access (WHO, 2011). The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child both stipulate that it is the intrinsic right of all people to have access to food (United Nations, 1948; United Nations, 1990). However, the responsibility to enact these rights rests mostly on the nation-state, not the international community. Doctoral Thesis Abstracts. On the other hand, some argue that repeated affirmations of human rights within the international realm do imply some global responsibility (Riddell, 2007).
The theoretical ideal is, therefore, that food security exists when all people in all places have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. Automated. Clearly that theoretical aim has not been met. Furthermore, if current mechanisms are not facilitating the aim it may require consideration of entirely new models of how countries engage with one another (Pogge, 2002). Typical measurement of food security is limited to doctoral a specific place, such as a nation, city or household. USAID (USAID, 2011) uses the household as a measurement, whereas the Food and automated essay system Agriculture Organization (FAO) programs are nationally operated, thus limiting the global goals and human rights to the nation-state. Food insecurity also exists in thesis abstracts differing levels.
One person may be facing a temporary bout of food insecurity, called “transitory”, while another may be consistently facing it, known as “chronic” food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity leads to high levels of a book vulnerability to hunger and famine. Doctoral Thesis. The achievement of food security does not necessitate that a country produce sufficient food supplies; but rather that a country is able to provide sufficient safe and nutritious food for paper page, its population. Thus, arises the question of food sovereignty: in a world of great economic disparity, will the doctoral abstracts food supplies of page one region be given to another, even in the case where the local population faces chronic food insecurity? Food security means the availability and access to sufficient safe food, whereas food sovereignty involves both ownership and the rights of doctoral thesis abstracts local people to define local food systems, without first being subject to effects has on children international market concerns. An important distinction must be made between food sovereignty as a theoretical construct and food sovereignty as a movement. The food sovereignty movement considers that the practices of doctoral abstracts multi-national corporations are akin to colonization, as such companies buy up large tracts of land and a research effects divorce has on turn local agricultural resources into export cash-crops. As a movement, food sovereignty lacks direction and involves a great diversity of opinion and idea. As a model to re-consider and doctoral thesis re-evaluate food, it highlights important challenges and offers potential remedies to current challenges. Food sovereignty as a theoretical construct, which is the definition that will be used throughout this paper, relates to the ownership and rights of food growers and local communities. Food security and food sovereignty are increasingly of global importance, with concerns not limited just to paper effects divorce children the developing world.
In the 2008 price spike, consumers in Great Britain saw a fifteen-percent rise in average food items, while the BBC tracked some items increasing in cost by more than forty-percent (Global Food Security, 2011a). In the twelve month period before the price spike, the doctoral thesis abstracts cost of on what children wheat increased by 130% and rice by 74% (ibid). The pinch of paying more for food in developed countries was expressed differently in many developing countries, such as the mass rioting in Yemen, Somalia, Senegal, Pakistan, Mozambique, Indonesia, India, Egypt, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Haiti, Burkina Faso, the Philippines and thesis abstracts Bangladesh. At the divorce has on children same time, the doctoral thesis abstracts World Resources Institute records sustainable and consistent increases in on examination per capita food production over abstracts the last several decades (World Resources Institute, 2011). System. USAID argues that food insecurity is often a result of poverty (USAID, 2011), while ownership, land rights and sovereignty are not mentioned as causal factors. While it is true that a direct relationship can be found between those who face food insecurity and those who are impoverished, that does not exclude other causes; such as, a lack of sovereignty or oppressive external factors. Thesis Abstracts. However, USAID does not take poverty alleviation and/or human rights as its prime reasons for engagement; rather its prime interests are to automated grading system protect America and to create opportunities for Americans (Riddell, 2007).
The European Union community has sought the improvement of food security for doctoral thesis, the least-developed countries through a plethora of national and international development bodies, while also engaging in massive export-based land acquisitions in those same regions (Graham, Aubry, Kunnemann and Suarez, 2011). Ironically, the aim of reaching the a research on what effects has on Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) with funding and support from the European Union is countered by European Union businesses as they engage in activities that displace and dispossess locals of their land and livelihood. Increasing commercial production does not mean an increase of local or national food security, in particular when these foreign companies are exporting entire crops. This may in thesis abstracts fact, lead to paper acknowledgement increased food insecurity and thesis abstracts higher levels of writing school malnutrition and abstracts poverty (Ansoms, 2011). Surprisingly, even Harvard University has used its investments in land-acquisition deals (Vidal and Provost, 2011).
A “land grab” refers to those land acquisitions that have caused displacement, dispossession and disenfranchisement; or, according to the Institute of Development Studies, it may also more broadly refer to paper effects the mass purchasing of agricultural lands by transnational companies (Scoones, 2009). Land grabbing is occurring on a scale and at doctoral, a rate faster than ever known before (Food First, 2011). When over one-hundred papers were presented at on examination system change, the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing in 2011, not one positive outcome could be found for local communities; such as, food security, employment and environmental sustainability (ibid). When such acquisitions occur in places of conflict, post-conflict and/or weak governance there is less monitoring and control and even greater negative impacts (Mabikke, 2011). Furthermore, large-scale land deals increase local food insecurity, as arable land produce is exported rather than reaching the local market; and abstracts smallholder farmers must purchase foods as opposed to harvesting it on their lands (Food First, 2011). Lester Brown (2011) argues that land purchasing is essay a part of the global struggle to abstracts ensure food security. Food-importing countries are securing overseas supplies by automated grading, attempting to control the entire supply-chain of food-stuffs, and thus avoid any potential problems that may arise in the process. Furthermore, he notes, that these deals are not only about food security but also water security. Countries such as Saudi Arabia used to produce much higher levels of wheat internally; however, due to declines in thesis available fresh water these land deals have secured required sources of both food and water (Bunting, 2011).
Woodhouse and Ganho (2011) argue that the role played by water access in land grabs cannot be under-estimated, including the competition between local and investor in acquiring access to water resources and to dissertation preuve scientifique sustainable water usage, as well as coping with the problems of creating pollution and chemical run-off. Case studies in Ethiopia demonstrate that access to, and rights of, water sources disproportionately favor investors over local smallholder farmers (Bues, 2011). Thesis Abstracts. The United Nations director of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) called these land-lease deals ‘neo-colonialist’ (Economist, 2011b). Essay Picnic With Family Beach. This statement was echoed by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who warned of a new wave of colonialism (Associated Press, 2011). Madeleine Bunting (2011, p. 1) envisions a “dystopian future in which millions of the hungry are excluded from the doctoral thesis abstracts land of their forefathers by barbed wire fences and security guards as food is automated essay exported to feed the rich world.” The wider view must, however, include the role of local/national government in facilitating, and in some cases encouraging, the thesis abstracts sale of arable land and displacement of peoples. Other analysts have more cautiously labeled the vast selling of agricultural lands to investors as the third wave of outsourcing.
The first wave consisted of investors looking for locations with cheaper labour. On Examination Needs Change. The second wave was the out-sourcing of middle-class jobs to places such as India because of its advances in information technology. This may be the third wave: the out-sourcing of growing and harvesting of food supplies to locations where there is cheap fertile land. Case Study: Ethiopia. Ethiopia is an doctoral thesis abstracts important case study as it has been claimed to be the paper acknowledgement page epicenter of land deals (Vidal, 2011), and it has also been well known since 1984 as a place where extreme food insecurity exists. The nation is largely agricultural-based. Doctoral Thesis. Agricultural products account for 46% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 90% of picnic with at the its exports and 83% of thesis its employment (USAID, 2010). Eight of every ten Ethiopians live in rural areas, a majority of its nearly eighty-million citizens. Needs. Average local land holdings are 0.93 hectare (USAID, 2010), which respectively contribute to household food security. Abstracts. Smallholder agriculture provides the most common livelihood for the vast majority of Ethiopians.
In 2010 ten percent of Ethiopia’s citizens relied on food aid (Reuters, 2011). In the 2011 appeal for emergency food aid, the United Nations explained that emergency was caused by essay on examination, a shortage of rain in the Somali and Oromiya regions. In response, the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi said that within five-years the country will no longer need food aid, projecting above 10-percent annual economic growth rates. The Economist confirms impressive growth rates, although not as high as the government-published results. Between 2001 and doctoral thesis abstracts 2010 the annual GDP growth rate was an impressive 8.4%, making it the world’s fifth fastest growing economy during that period (Economist, 2011a). Projections for 2011-2015 suggest average growth at 8.1%, the third fastest in the world (ibid). Scientifique. In contrast to these rosy predictions, USAID, which is one of Ethiopia’s largest donors ($600 million of food aid in 2009-10), outlines that successful agricultural development and food security requires “100% ownership and buy-in by the Ethiopian people” (USAID, 2010, p. Doctoral. 5). And yet, the Ethiopian government and transnational corporations are doing exactly the opposite, in picnic family displacing and dispossessing Ethiopians and handing over control and ownership to non-local corporations and governments. The Economist (2009) highlighted an interesting parallel in the $100-million Saudi investment to abstracts grow and automated system export rice, wheat and barley on a 99-year land-lease in doctoral thesis Ethiopia, while the United Nations World Food Program plans to spend $116-million, over a five-year period, providing emergency food aid to Ethiopia. In 2008 the dissertation preuve Ethiopian famine was compounded as food continued to be exported and did not reach the local market (Dominguez, 2010). Yet fertile Ethiopian agricultural land continues to be leased for as little as $1 per doctoral thesis acre (Bunting, 2011).
According to Ethiopian government sources, over thirty-six countries have leased land within its borders (Vidal, 2011). Although estimates vary, it is thought that 60—80% of food production in Ethiopia is completed by automated grading system, women. Thus the role of abstracts gender is revealed by analysis of acknowledgement those affected by land sales and dispossessions (USAID, 2010). Of those who face the doctoral abstracts brunt of food shortages and with at the insecurity in Ethiopia, most are women and children (USAID, 2010). Furthermore, areas of thesis abstracts large-scale plantations are more likely to be poverty-affected than prosperous in respect to the local populations (Da Via, E. 2011). As a parallel example, case studies from Cambodia show that land grabs do not benefit local residents, and over time resulted in collective action by the local population against political and commercial interests (Schneider, 2011). Acknowledgement. The massive land-lease deals are not without their supporters, however. The technology transfer, increase in number of jobs and thesis abstracts foreign investment are usually cited as having positive effects for essay picnic, the overall benefit of Ethiopia and its citizens. Ethiopian Ambassador to doctoral abstracts the UK, Berhanu Kabede (2011), published a response arguing that land-leases assist Ethiopia to move towards mechanized agriculture to increase production capability, and as such the government has set aside 7.4 million acres of agricultural land for land-lease deals. The Ambassador further notes that this is only a portion of Ethiopia’s arable land (ibid). The Ambassador highlights some of the needs change positive environmental changes the Ethiopian government has made in doctoral abstracts recent years, including the planting of report primary 1-billion trees, re-foresting 15-million hectares of land and a national plan to become carbon neutral by 2025 (ibid).
Ambassador Kabede did not mention some of the negative impacts the vast land sales will have; such as, displacement of local farmers, uncompensated dispossession of their land, continued food scarcity as investors export what is grown, unsustainable resource use, and environmental damage to lands, atmosphere and water. Furthermore, the doctoral majority of the world’s poor are rural dwellers who engage in some small-scale farming. As a result of the dispossession of land and displacement of people, poverty levels will increase and more people will be forced to migrate away from paper acknowledgement page, agricultural areas to city-centers. World Bank studies (Riddell, 2007) confirm that the push for macro-economic development via liberalization of markets has detrimental effects on thesis particular groups of society, particularly the poor. Guillozet and Bliss (2011) found that, although investment in the forestry sector is low in Ethiopia, the agricultural investments affect natural forests by mass clearing and burning.
As a result, there are long-term negative impacts. Preuve. Biodiversity is currently being reduced by doctoral abstracts, the cutting and burning of hundreds of hectares of forest, as well as by the draining of dissertation preuve swamps and marshlands (Vidal, 2011). Pesticides have also been shown, in Ethiopian cases, to kill bees and thesis abstracts other unintended flora and fauna. Beyond the investment land itself the clearing of with natural forests is affecting livelihoods on a much larger scale, by negatively affecting the wider ecosystems (Guillozet and Bliss, 2011). Such deals are neither agricultural development nor rural development, but simply agribusiness development, according to GRAIN (2008). An unpublished report that interviewed 150 local farm households in Ethiopia found that there is weak monitoring of investor activities from regional and national government.
It also found that accelerated forest degradation resulted in loss of doctoral thesis abstracts livelihood security for on examination change, community members. Furthermore, in Cameroon, cases of land grabs demonstrate that the transnational investment in agriculture is a major obstacle to local livelihoods, traditional resource ownership and doctoral thesis land rights, as well as to sustainable development (Simo, 2011). In yet another example, Rwandan land grabs have shown the move from traditionally owned and operated farms into large-scale corporate mono-crop cultivation has negatively affected livelihoods through loss of land as well as means of financial security, resulting in increased poverty levels and food insecurity despite overall macro-economic gains (Ansoms, 2011). An article in the Indian national newspaper, The Hindu, quotes the Ethiopian Prime Minister encouraging Indian investment who assured the Indian Prime Minister (then trying to essay picnic at the encourage Indian investment in thesis abstracts Ethiopia) that no land grabbing was occurring in his country (Varadarajan, 2011). However, highly productive agricultural lands are rarely left completely unused, which begs the question how vacant much of this land is. Darryl Vhugen (2011) and John Vidal (2011) both found that most land deals required involuntary displacement of small-scale farmers. Thus, these small-scale farmers in Ethiopia are left with neither land to cultivate nor an alternative source of income following their displacement. The Ethiopian government views international investment and land-lease deals as means to achieve economic development.
In Madagascar, when 1.3 million hectares of agricultural lands were going to be sold to Daewod, the essay picnic family beach international community and local residents reacted in doctoral thesis opposition, resulting in the government being overthrown (Perrine, Mathidle, Rivo and Raphael. 2011). The Ethiopian economic development model is one which seeks export-driven macroeconomic development at the expense of micro-level communities and residents, particularly those in remote regions. Ethiopian officials seem to use interchangeably the terms ‘empty’ and ‘unused’ with the word ‘uncultivated’, with little or no reference at all to the people who currently live on and use those lands. Thus, not only report do levels of poverty and food insecurity increase but so too may political instability. The World Bank concludes that the risks involved with such land-lease investments are immense, and doctoral thesis abstracts that land sales “often deprived local people, in particular the vulnerable, of their rights… Consultations, if conducted at all, were superficial…and environmental and a research on what divorce children social safeguards were widely neglected” (Economist, 2011b, p.1).
Such land–lease deals are becoming more commonplace, with large sales in Sudan, Egypt, Congo, Zambia, Mali, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Liberia, Ghana, and abstracts Mozambique (Economist, 2009; Economist, 2011b; Vhugen, 2011). Although there are land deals taking place outside of Africa, over a book report primary 50% of the doctoral thesis abstracts estimated 60-80 million hectares of paper acknowledgement page such deals in the last three years took place there (Economist, 2011b), approximately an area the size of France (Vidal and Provost, 2011). The largest land buyers include China, India, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia; yet some of the largest deals are done with Western funding (Vidal and Provost, 2011). Cases from Sierra Leone show that a lack of knowledge-sharing with locals, along with a plethora of false promises, has led to doctoral abstracts social, environmental and economic loss. Addax Bioenergy received the use of thesis paper acknowledgement page 40,000 hectares to grow ethanol for export to the European Union (EU). Local villagers were in turn promised two-thousand jobs and environmental protection of the doctoral swamps. However, three years into the project only fifty jobs materialized, while some of the system needs swamps have been drained and doctoral thesis others damaged by irrigation (Economist, 2011b).
Those jobs that did exist paid USD $2.50 per day on a casual basis (Da Via, E. Picnic Beach. 2011). Clearly these are not isolated cases and action is required to stem the tsunami of sales of land in food-insecure areas. * Re-evaluate the system: Up to twenty-five percent of crops are lost due to pests and diseases and abstracts the developing world loses up to an additional thirty-seven percent of harvested foods due to problems in storage and transportation. Every day 4.4 million apples, 5.1 million potatoes, 2.8 million tomatoes and 1.6 million bananas are thrown in the garbage (Global Food Security, 2011b). Systematic shifts that address this loss may focus upon local sustainability and preuve buy local movements, rather than relying upon doctoral, export commodities and global transport for the sale and supply of food stuffs.
This requires participation that includes local ownership and collective decision making. * Provide Sustainable Solutions: Much of modern agriculture is mechanized, using oil-based chemical fertilizers, pesticides and writing a book report primary school herbicides. This system of agriculture is doctoral abstracts not sustainable. It needs to system needs change be remedied with a more sustainable approach to agriculture – which can be just as agriculturally productive (Barker, 2007). Thesis. On example of how sustainable initiatives can be promoted and thesis supported is the Equator Initiative, which provides financial prizes and knowledge sharing for community-driven efforts that reduce poverty through sustainable use of biodiversity. As many smallholder farmers are engaging in de facto sustainable agriculture encouragement and support, such as the Equator Initiative need to be scaled-up. * Regulate Land Grabbing: The World Bank has proposed guidelines, but does not have the means or authority to enforce them (Bunting, 2011).
In order guidelines to be enforced, such as those developed by doctoral thesis abstracts, the World Bank, national governments must be involved, for this to take place greater coordination on essay picnic with family at the beach the international level and advocacy from the doctoral NGO and public sectors is required. Madagascar demonstrates the power of collective action, as does Sudan and Cambodia, yet long-term and effective change will require governmental enforced regulation. Essay. * Establish Good Governance: The purchasing of land and forced displacement of peoples occurs not solely due to transnational pressure, but with government approval. Citizens and the international community must encourage, and work towards, better governance decisions. An international framework for doctoral abstracts, responsible investing could be created. However, such a framework would remain weak and dissertation scientifique ineffective unless adopted and enforced by national governments. In order to ensure that investments are beneficial for both the investor and the community, this framework must ensure that food security and livelihood protection for the local communities (Shete, 2011). Further encouragement can levied on governance in tying good governance to official development assistance, such systems have been developed and doctoral thesis abstracts enacted by the World Bank and others. * Monitor and Penalize Environmental Damage: Companies must be more strictly monitored with regard to report environmental damage, both by the public and private sectors (Nunow, 2011). Monitoring and evaluation of investments ought to be strengthened with regulation and policy by the relevant national government and by international bodies. NGOs and communities can take inspiration from others who have taken transnational companies to court, and won. National government need to recognize the short-term benefits do not out-weight the long-term environmental damage, and seek compensation to rectify violations.
The scale of doctoral thesis abstracts land acquisitions demonstrate that such regulations will likely not significantly deter investments and investors, as efforts to do so in Tanzania demonstrate (Pallangyo, 2007). * Develop Rural Agriculture: Currently less than one percent of smallholder farmers use irrigation techniques in Ethiopia (CSA, 2009). Essay On Examination Needs Change. An improvement in this regard will allow for increased productivity as well as year-round water availability. Facilitation of loans for doctoral thesis abstracts, the purchase of pumps (as smallholder farmers often lack financial resources to make such investments), as well as access to automated grading system internal markets with infrastructural developments can improve community-driven and locally-owned productivity. * Undertake Land Reform: Changes on the national level will require land reforms, ownership reforms and recognition of doctoral abstracts traditional land rights. Such land reforms and rights have been evolving in Madagascar, following the essay on examination system needs rejection of the Daewod land-grab deal and the installation of a new government. Thesis. Tanzania has also enacted progressive rights for recognizing traditional land title (Locher, 2011). This can also be done in conjunction with FAO, FIDA, UNCTAD and World Bank recommendations to guarantee and respect local land rights (Perrine, Mathidle, Rivo and Raphael, 2011). Wily (2011) identifies consistent and persisting failures of land rights and a book primary school ownership caused by the leasing of lands without consent of customary owners. As highlighted by the Ethiopian case study, it becomes readily apparent that the forced relocation of rural farmers will likely increase the numbers of people living in poverty. Consequently, there will be an increase in the numbers of people in need of emergency food aid.
Aggregate data on food security will not measure the importance of food sovereignty, nor do the data take into thesis account unjust practices and environmental damage. The majority of Ethiopians are subsistence farmers, and system depriving them of their land, rights and livelihood neglects the importance of abstracts human rights and environmental protection. One means to automated achieve the thesis goal of national food security, as well as a reduction of required emergency food aid, is to increase effectiveness of rural farms. Communities themselves must engage and paper on what has on children be active in resisting forced relocation and dispossession of their land and rights. Examples of such resistance include that of Madagascar and the Southern Sudanese movement, which advocates land belongs to the community and requires its involvement (Deng, 2011), as well as active community resistance to land grabs in Cambodia (Schneider, 2011). Communities must seek to be participants in the discussion, to be involved in the process and to voice their concerns. Food security of the wealthy at the expense of the impoverished will not work and doctoral thesis requires new approaches. The prospect of attaining sovereignty over land and the food grown on dissertation preuve scientifique it encourages smallholder farmers to continue their livelihood while seeking to increase overall food security. “In most poor nations, there are large gaps between actual and potential agricultural yields. But the best route to closing this gap usually is not super-sized farms. In most labour-intensive agricultural settings, small farms are more productive than large farms.
They could become even more productive – and thesis as a result likely minimise unrest – if developing country governments provide these family farms with secure land rights that allow farmers to invest in essay with family beach their own land and abstracts improve their harvests.” (Vhugen, 2011, p.1). The World Bank’s 2010 report found that land grabs ignored proper legal procedures, displaced local peoples without compensation, encroached on areas beyond the agreement, had negative impacts on gender disparity, were environmentally destructive, provided far fewer jobs than promised, leased land below market value and routinely excluded pastoralists and displaced peoples from consultations (Da Via, 2011). Furthermore, the World Bank concludes: “many investments…failed to live up to writing primary expectations and, instead of generating sustainable benefits, contributed to thesis asset loss and left local people worse off than they would have been without the investment” (World Bank, 2010, p. 51). Adopting food sovereignty as a concept and approach will not solve these problems. On Examination Change. However, it does allow for an expanded analysis of the complex issues at hand. No easy solution exists as neoliberal economics and structurally-adjusted trade liberalization conflict with human rights; as global food security is confronted by doctoral thesis abstracts, local food and land sovereignty; and, as the Washington Consensus is paper challenged by the Peasants’ Way. “It would be no exaggeration to suggest that the outcome of these convulsive transformations and contestations constitutes one of the greatest moral and political challenges of our times” (Makki and Geisler, 2011, p. 17). Challenges, however, are no reason to accept injustice and abuse of human rights.
Actors with roles to play on every level can be a part of the solutions proposed above. Thesis. Re-evaluating the food system and writing report primary school developing sustainable solutions begin on individual levels and are supported on the international marketplace. Regulation of land grabbing, improving governance, undertaking land reform and the monitoring of environmental damage rest more heavily upon national and international actors; yet these process can be driven locally with support from the international community, as demonstrated by the cases of Sudan and Madagascar. This is a call for doctoral abstracts, action lest we find ourselves “academic Cassandras who prophesy the coming plagues, but do little to avert them” (Farmer, 2001, p. xxviii). Ansoms, A. 2011. Writing Report Primary School. The ‘bitter fruit’ of a new agrarian model: Large-scale land deals and local livelihoods in doctoral abstracts Rwanda. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK.
Associated Press. 2011. Clinton warns Africa of ‘new colonialism’. [online] Available at: http://arabnews.com/economy/article452434.ece [Accessed 12 June 2011]. Barker, D. Essay Grading System. 2007. The Rise and Predictable Fall of Globalized Industrialized Agriculture. The International Forum on Globalization: San Francisco. Brown, Lester.
2011. World on the Edge. Earth Policy Institute: London. Bues, A. 2011. Agricultural Foreign Direct Investment and doctoral thesis Water Rights: An Institutional Analysis from Ethiopia. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of essay on examination needs change Sussex, UK. Bunting, M. 2011.
How Land Grabs in Africa could herald a new dystopian age of abstracts hunger. [online] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/jan/28/africa-land-grabs-food-security?INTCMP=SRCH [Accessed 24 May 2011]. Report Primary School. CSA. 2009. Large and medium scale commercial farms sample survey 2008/09 (2001 E.C.). Central Statistical Agency Statistical Bulletin 446. Da Via, E. 2011. The Politics of “Win-Win” Narratives: Land Grabs as Development Opportunity. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Deng, D. 2011. Doctoral. ‘Land Belongs to the Community’ Demystifying the ‘global land grab’ in Southern Sudan.
International Conference on a book report primary school Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Dominguez, A. 2010. Why was there still malnutrition in Ethiopia in 2008? Causes and doctoral thesis Humanitarian Accountability. Journal of Humanitarian Affairs, 21 February 2010. Dwyer. 2011.
Building the Politics Machine: Tools for Resolving the Global Land Grab. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Economist 2011b. Essay Grading System. When others are grabbing their land. [online] Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/18648855 [Accessed 24 May 2011]. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 29 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Food Security or Food Sovereignty: the Case of Land Grabs. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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PhD Dissertation Abstracts » English » Boston University
General Histories of thesis Astronomy and Cosmology. Since the dawn of essay on examination system needs change time there have been astronomical (more generally called heavenly) phenomena which not only ‘forced’ our human ancestors to doctoral abstracts, look towards the heavens but also affected their lives in great many ways. To mention a few of these phenomena, one should point to the never- ending succession of night by day and vice versa, the four seasons spanning across a whole year, the bright stellar constellations covering the whole of the night sky. To be a bit more specific, the four seasons would affect the humans nutrition while the stellar constellations would facilitate navigation around the then-known world (hence increase trading and the profits made from it). Many of the very first civilisations (Egyptians, Assyrians, etc.) glorified heavenly objects such as the sun or the moon to a point where they considered them as the upper gods in their deities’ pantheon.
One of the first applications of astronomy appearing in the history of human civilisation (circa 4000-1000 BC) is the adaptation of the moon calendar to the solar year which was a bit larger than the corresponding lunar periods. This adaptation was realised for agricultural reasons. Another characteristic example of a civilisation adapting its calendar to its agricultural needs is the writing a book report primary Jews (their calendar became solar based instead of the lunar based calendar they originally used). Another ancient civilisation whose existence is closely linked to thesis abstracts, astronomy and essay on examination its effects were the Babylonians . Doctoral! Their measurements regarding appearance and disappearance of heavenly bodies and report primary the extremely accurate position monitoring of other bright planets of our solar system (e.g Venus) righteously gives to the Babylonians a prominent place amongst the pioneers of the astronomical science. The Assyrians on the other hand were more cruel and crude compared to the Babylonians even if these two share more or less the same time slot in doctoral abstracts, human history. The Assyrians treated the sun and dissertation preuve scientifique the moon as deities like many of the Mesopotamian people at the time, but also demonstrated a vibrant interest in astrology and not so much in astronomy . One of the doctoral primary reasons that they used a calendar was not for astronomical observations or other reasons, but for astrological predictions; Assyrians deeply believed that the effect of the stars and heavenly bodies on the behaviour and thought of the man was quite significant. What is even more interesting is dissertation, that Assyrians in their effort to discover and interpret omens regarding kingdoms, kings, empires etc., observed more closely the moon and the stars rather than the sun. This ‘preference’ was due to the fact that the sun does not present any variations in his colour or trajectory throughout the time that he is observable from the earth. The planets and the moon in the dark sky on the other hand appear to have multiple trajectories (relative to thesis abstracts, the earth of course) depending on paper on what effects divorce the time of year, etc. The Assyrians’ kingdom however was dismantled by a combined effort of the Babylonians and their allies in the late 7th century BC. This conquest marks a new era for the science of astronomy.
No more omens are exclusively sought after in abstracts, the night skies, but scientific observations and mapping efforts of the night sky and its objects is essay on examination needs, beginning to be realised. The town of Babylon itself which is the centre of this cultural and scientific revolution will pass from the hands of many conquerorsstability however is ensured throughout those transitions and this city will become the epicentre of this astronomical evolution up until the time of the deat of Alexander the Great roughly three centuries afterwards. However, it should not be forgotten that the main driving force behind the evolution of astronomy in Babylon were the abstracts priests who, locked inside their temple they made their observations but this situation had one inherent disadvantage: their knowledge and at the beach scientific methods are not documented anywhere; instead, the knowledge passed on from templar to templar most likely. In the years after the decay of doctoral thesis abstracts Babylon, the on examination system change Chaldeans appear and take over further advancing the astronomical science. Greek mathematicians at the time also use for the first time elliptical coordinates systems to fully describe the motion of a planet inside space and not only on a two-dimensional area (as the Babylonian priests did up to that time).
The Chaldeans created the doctoral now-famous Chaldean tables which are essentially a whole collection of various data on motion of the planets inside a 3-D elliptical world which is cut in two parts: an upper and a lower part which is smaller. The people with the greatest influence on the evolution of astronomy during the antiquity were without doubt the Greeks. In classical plays such as the a research on what divorce has on Iliad and the Odyssey, Homer clearly mentions a series of doctoral thesis abstracts constellations and stars known at the time such as the Great Bear, Orion, etc. Some of the a research on what divorce has on children early settlers of Greece were also forced to doctoral thesis, migrate to the islands of the Aegean or to Asia Minor due to the harsh morphology of mainland Greece; a side effect of this migration were the commercial bonds developed between those various towns. Thesis Paper Acknowledgement Page! Commercial bonds means trading, and trading also comprises accurate navigation form town to town; these were typical needs which lead to the evolution of Astronomy in ancient Greece. Doctoral Thesis! The Greeks on the other hand still worshipped heavenly bodies as deities like the rest of the people of their time. Early Greek philosophers have tried to give some reasoning to phenomena such as eclipses, day and night, etc. Paper! Their reasoning however hardly had any practical value. Doctoral! The first to express an opinion of value was Thales who foretold within a year an actual solar eclipse. It is worth noticing at report primary this point that a few Greek philosophers were the very first to doctoral thesis, express the opinion that the earth is of spherical shape and the moon rotates around it: they were Timaeus, Aristoteles and Plato.
The latter’s theory was based on two sentences firstly expressed by the two former. Report Primary School! The fact remains that by the 4th century BC, astronomy had evolved in Greece up to a point where for example the elliptical trajectories of individual planets were easy to be observed throughout the year; this evolution however was nothing compared to the corresponding revolution of other arts and philosophy of the time. In the second century A.D Ptolemy extended the doctoral abstracts idea of the ancient Greeks for the universe and he proposed a model where the earth was stationary at the center surrounded by eight spheres which carries the sun, the moon, the automated five know at that time planets and the stars. Doctoral Abstracts! The planets moved on their respective spheres and the stars which were at the last and eighth sphere, would always stay at the same positions relative to each other and rotate across the sky; beyond those stars it wasn’t clear what existed. Ptolemy’s model was accurate to page, predict the position of the planets, while it fails to describe accurately the thesis abstracts orbit of the dissertation preuve scientifique moon. This model has been generally accepted, and since there was a “free’ space beyond the last sphere for heaven and hell this model has also been accepted by the Christian church. In 1514 Nicholas Copernicus proposed a model for the universe but in order to avoid to be characterized as heretic by the church he published it anonymously. According to doctoral thesis abstracts, his model, the sun was stationary at the center and the earth and the planets where moving around it in circular motion.
The discovery of the telescope a century later makes possible the acceptance of Copernicus model. Page! The Italian astronomer Galileo Galilee observed that Juniper’s moon was orbiting around Juniper and not as according to Ptolemy’s model around the earth, while the doctoral abstracts German astronomer Johannes Kepler observed that planets move around sun in elliptical and not circular orbits. Those observations confirm Copernicus model for the universe, but the explanation for the elliptical and not circular motion of the essay on examination planets came later in 1687. At this time a great publication came to life from Sir Isaac Newton who in thesis, his published work explained the motion of the objects with time and he put mathematical expression for on examination needs change those, as well as defining the law of universal gravitation. According to doctoral, him, each body in dissertation preuve scientifique, the universe will be attracted by any other body by a force known as gravity; this force is proportional to the mass of the bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton’s law of gravity gave proof that the doctoral thesis abstracts orbits of the planets around the sun will be elliptical as so the orbit of the moon around the earth. The law of gravity gave a reasonable explanation on the motion of the planets but created a paradox at the same time; since gravity is an attractive force therefore will it cause the picnic family at the planets to collide at some point with each other? Newton argued on this by defining the universe as static and infinite; at that point, no one thought about the possibility that the universe will expand or contract, but they where trying to modify the law of doctoral gravity in order to writing a book primary, complete the “picture”. The way we think about the universe changed in 1929 after a great discovery made by Edwin Hubble. Doctoral Abstracts! Hubble observed distant stars and galaxies and he discovered that galaxies are moving away from us, or in general the universe is expanding. For an expanding universe there was a time where the universe was still infinitesimally dense and dissertation preuve infinitely small, this time has been named as the Big Bang.
At that point in time the general laws of physics broke down, and if there was time of the universe before the big bang, we are not able to know it since there is nothing left from them. The idea of a static universe collapsed! The discovery of the electromagnetic theory by James Clerk Maxwell in 1865 brought the idea that light is a wave disturbance of the electromagnetic spectrum , which travels at fixed speeds. Albert Einstein introduced that in the theory of relativity in 1905, according to his theory all the laws of doctoral physics are the same independently from the speed of the observer. The law of relativity put an end to the idea of preuve absolute time, since it confirmed both Newton’s and Maxwell’s theories. Doctoral Abstracts! In 1915 Einstein extended his theory and produced the general theory of picnic with beach relativity; he found out that the universe is a four dimensional space where time is the fourth dimension, thus the space-time universe is not flat but it is doctoral, curved by the disturbance which is caused by the mass of any object. The force of gravity is the product of the disturbance of the space-time universe caused by any mass. For example the mass of the sun curves the space-time domain while the earth is moving in a straight path in the space time domain it appear from earth (a three dimensional space) that is essay on examination system, orbiting in doctoral abstracts, an elliptical path.
According to the law of relativity, the path of the light is affected by system the wrapped space time universe; it bends its path so it doesn’t travel in straight line. When the doctoral abstracts light from a distant star passes near the sun the light is bended because of the distortion of space time universe by the mass, so for an observer on earth the star will appear in system, a different position in the sky, the prediction of general relativity confirmed by the observations made in 1919 measuring the position of a star during an abstracts eclipse. Before the essay picnic family beach theory of general relativity space and time was thought as static, events happening there wouldn’t have an affect on them, after 1915 things changed the universe defined as a dynamic quantity of doctoral thesis space and time where each action taken place affects it. A. Pannekoek, “A HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY ”, Ruskin House, George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Essay On Examination Change! J.D. North, “ the Fontana history of Astronomy and thesis abstracts Csmology”, Fontana Press I.D. Novikov, “Evolution of the Universe”, Cambridge University Press James Cornell and Alan P. Lightman, “ Revealing the Universe, Pediction and Proof in Astronomy ”, The MIT Press S.W.Hawking, “A Brief History of Time”, Bantam Press 1988 J.J.C. Smart, “Problems of Space and Time”, Macmillan Pub. Co, 1964 S.F. On What! Mason, “A History of Sciences”, Colier, 1962 M. Kaku J. Thompson, “Beyond Einstein”, Oxford University Press, 1999.
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