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A Guide to Writing a Senior Thesis in History & Literature
Five Steps to and literature harvard Writing a Good For and Against Essay. An essay is a formal piece of writing which describes, analyses or discusses a particular issue. The most common types are: Opinion essays. They present the writer’s personal opinion of the thesis services dublin topic, supported with examples and reasons. For and against and literature, essays. They present both sides of an issue in a balanced way. In the concluding paragraph you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. In this post, I#8217;ll guide you step by step to help you write a good for and against essay. Step 1. Tips and essay, Guidelines +sample essay (pdf) Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing) Step 3. Using connectors of contrast Step 4. Using connectors of purpose Step 5. Write: 53 topics to write about. (pdf) Step 1. Tips and guidelines+sample essay. 1. The first stage in writing is producing ideas. It’s important to dedicate two or three minutes to carefully planning what you are going to say.
Make a list of the points for and against. Remember that the history and literature thesis key to writing a good balanced essay is to include as many arguments you disagree with as those you agree with. They should be noted impartially although in your conclusion you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. 2. Producing and organising ideas is one thing. Twelfth Night Act 2 Scene? Shaping ideas and the organisation of your writing is another. But often the most difficult part is and literature thesis, starting a first draft. Once you have your first draft pay attention to twelfth night essay act 2 4 how you have organised the information into paragraphs and grouped ideas. Once this is done you can focus on expression. This means looking at sentence structure, tense usage and history and literature thesis, vocabulary.
It’s important to write clearly and economically. This can mean either rephrasing ideas in editing uk, two sentences instead of one, or rewriting two longer sentences as one shorter sentence. So, go over your first draft, looking for harvard thesis, ways of improving sentence structure, tense usage and vocabulary. 3. Organise your essay into three parts: Introduction- Paragraph 1- Introduce the for nursing topic. The opening should engage the reader’s interest and give a hint of what is to follow. Main Body- Normally you have two paragraphs. In Paragraph 2, you state your arguments for and in Paragraph 3, your arguments against. Conclusion– In paragraph 4 you refer back to history and literature thesis the topic and summarize. Here you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. 4. It’s important that you begin each paragraph with a main idea and then develop this idea.
For a new idea, begin a new paragraph. 5. This is academic writing, so don’t use informal style ( no contractions, colloquial words, or emotional language). 6. Services Uk? Remember to use a variety of history, structures and vocabulary adequate to your level. Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing ). Step 3. Ruins Detroit? Using connectors of contrast. Using connectors is important to express different relationships between ideas. Here, you#8217;ll learn how to use connectors of contrast. Read the flyer below to learn how to use: despite/in spite of, nevertheless, however, on and literature harvard the other hand, although, even though, though, yet, still, but and while/whereas.
At the end of the phd thesis flyer there are some interactive exercises to test your knowledge. Step 3. Harvard Thesis? Using connectors of purpose. Twelfth Night Essay 4? Now we learn how to express purpose with the following words: to, in order to, so as to, for, so that and in harvard thesis, case. Binding Services? Test your knowledge. Step 5. Write: 53 topics to write about. Pdf here. Are you ready to write now? Here#8217;s a compilation of 53 for and against topics to write about from different sites and history and literature thesis, course books. Take your pick, follow all the tips and guidelines and good luck! Should schools start later in the morning? Benefits of teaching children second languages early on.
The pros and cons of single gender classrooms. Is sex education the job of essay, parents or of the and literature harvard thesis school? The pros and wageningen, cons of reduction of physical education hours in our current school system. The pros and cons of security cameras in schools. Pros and cons of a 4-day school week. Thesis? Should parents pay students for good grades?
The pros and cons of bilingual or dual language education. The pros and essay, cons of wearing a uniform. The pros and cons of history and literature harvard thesis, banning junk food in schools. Should sexual education be taught in high schools? The education a child receives at home from having parents who are positive role models is more important than the academic education a child receives at school. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Plastic surgery- vanity or need? Is vegetarianism a healthy diet? One of the largest parts of government expenditure is copy services, health.
Some people argue that this money would be better spent on health education on the principle that prevention is history and literature, better than cure. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Should parents be allowed to choose their child#8217;s gender? Pros and cons of having exotic animals as home pets? Should advertising for plastic surgery be illegal? Should priests be celibate? What does everyone think about zoo animals? Is it a good or a bad thing? Does legal prostitution reduce crime? To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable?
Discuss the pros and walter benjamin, cons. Some people argue that the amount of violence shown in films and on television has led to an increase in violent crimes in society. Do you agree with this argument? Should the government control what is shown on television and in the cinema? Should rich countries forgive all debts for poor countries? The pros and and literature harvard, cons of children under the age of 10 playing video games. The pros and cons of film, television, and music piracy. Should kids under the age of 13 have a phone? Advantages and disadvantages of digital spying on kids and thesis binding services dublin, teens. The pros and cons of owning an electric car.
Have we become too dependent on history and literature harvard technology? Discuss the pros and cons. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and detroit, high schools? Should we ban the sale of violent video games? Some people say that the Internet is making the world smaller by bringing people together. To what extent do you agree that the Internet is making it easier for people to communicate with one another? Should pro wrestling be considered a sport?
Should sport hunting be banned? Many people want their country to hold the Olympics. Others believe that international sporting events bring more problems than benefits. History Thesis? Discuss both views and state your opinion. In the future, we will have more and more leisure time as machines replace many of the tasks we do at home and work. Discuss the benefits this will bring and essay school, also the problem it will cause.
It is said that travel broadens the mind. What can we learn by travelling to other countries? Should we first explore our own countries? Discuss. In many countries tourism is and literature thesis, a major part of the economy, but it also causes environmental damage and ruins the places it exploits. It is argued that tourists should pay an additional tax to compensate for this damage. Do you agree? Should museums and art galleries be free of charge for the general public, or should a charge, even a voluntary charge, be levied for admittance?
Discuss this issue, and give your opinion. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today. What are the essay for nursing school advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the working week to thirty five hours? Most high level jobs are done by history men. Should the government encourage a certain percentage of these jobs to twelfth essay act 2 be reserved for thesis, women? Should retirement be compulsory at 65 years of age?
Differences between countries become less evident each year. Nowadays, all over services dublin, the world people share the same fashions, advertising, brands, eating habits and history, TV channels. What are the essay scene advantages and disadvantages of this? Television has had a significant influence on the culture of history, many societies. To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of your society?
Some people like living in a house, while others prefer an apartment. Are there more advantages than disadvantages to living in a house rather than in an apartment? FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIPS. The pros and cons of gay marriage. Some parents choose not to have a television at home because of the influence on their children.
Is this a good or a bad thing? Some people believe in the traditional idea that the woman’s place is in the home, while others say that idea is outdated and that women should play an increasingly important role in the workplace of the future. What is your opinion? People are now living longer than ever before and many old people are unable to look after themselves. Some people believe that it is the responsibility of walter benjamin baudelaire, families to look after the elderly, while others say governments should provide retirement homes for them where they can be looked after properly. Discuss. Are women better parents than men? If children behave badly, should their parents accept responsibility and also be punished? 13 thoughts on history “ Five Steps to Writing a Good For and Against Essay ” The powerpoint like document is editing services uk, not working properly. Some words overlap others and history thesis, it makes it difficult to read sometimes.
Anyway, thanks for sharing, it#8217;s very useful, Which powerpoint do you refer to? I#8217;ve tested everything visual on phd thesis the post and it seems to be working fine. Thanks a lot for history thesis, sharing us this material. I really appreciate it. You#8217;re welcome! I am glad you find it useful!
Just to let you know that we’ve shortlisted this blog post for this month’s TeachingEnglish blog award and I’ll be putting up a post about it on tomorrow’s TeachingEnglish Facebook page http://www.facebook.com/TeachingEnglish.BritishCouncil, if you’d like to check there for likes and phd thesis, comments. Thanks a lot, Ann! This is quite interesting topic and students can have variety of words to history and literature write on. Writing an essay just needs clear instruction and valuable content. This is basic requirement of essay because without clear concept we can#8217;t write well. Editing? Also i want to harvard say that writing will describe your thinking as well so always try to essays remain positive and determined to your task. Your rules of hypenation seem to not be for English words and harvard, spellings. Ruins Detroit? I think that your current rules are perhaps for Spanish. That makes this kind of hypenation: Since #8220;th#8221; is a digraph, you have to thesis hyphenate: Where is wageningen phd thesis, #8220;although#8221; hyphenated exactly?
I can#8217;t see it anywhere! This is harvard, all very useful. Thanks a lot.. Thanks for your comment! Thanks very much for sharing your For and ruins, Against Presentation but it does not work quite well. Words overlap, some of them are not separated#8230; it is difficult to stop the presentation.. Which presentation are you referring to? There are three.
I#8217;ve just checked all of them and they seem to be working fine.
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History & History and Literature | Harvard University | History Department
rose essay vail co The following 2002 essay was written by William H. Gerdts, Professor Emeritus, Graduate School of the City University of New York, for the illustrated catalogue Masters of Light: Plein-Air Painting in California 1890-1930 , ISBN 0-971-4092-3-4 (cloth) , which accompanied the exhibition, Masters of Light , the first ever international exhibition of California plein air paintings to tour Europe. The essay is history harvard thesis reprinted with permission of services, The Irvine Museum and without illustrations. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, or wish to purchase a copy of the catalogue, please contact The Irvine Museum directly through either this phone number or web address: Redmond's fame both in his own time and today rests principally upon his mastery of the theme of fields of wildflowers, above all golden yellow poppies. CALIFORNIA LANDSCAPE WITH FLOWERS is one of the history and literature thesis, most monumental of these, the expansive horizontal spread of the canvas echoing the benjamin, vastness of the state itself. In such pictures, the tapestry of bright colors covering the and literature harvard thesis, rolling hillside glows in the light of California, a paean to its unique natural qualities. Probably dating from the 1920s, as does its near-mate, POPPY FIELD LANDSCAPE (Laguna Art Museum), such pictures inevitably conjure up the aesthetics of Impressionism.
They call to walter baudelaire essays, mind Claude Monet's own paintings of poppies in Giverny and harvard, elsewhere, and the works of wageningen, American artists working in a similar fashion - Childe Hassam on the island of Appledore, Julian Onderdonk in and literature the bluebonnet fields of Texas. Redmond was painting and exhibiting scenes featuring fields of poppies at least as early as 1912. Despite the fact that some critics labeled Redmond's poppy pictures as potboilers,  his choice of subject matter was, itself, a tribute to and celebration of binding services dublin, California, where the poppy is the state flower. In California at the turn of the century, poems were written and legends were recalled extolling the poppy, designated the Queen flower of them all.  Writers such as Charles Lummis declared such fields of and literature harvard, wildflowers as The Carpet of God's Country, referring not only to the poppies, but to the forty million flowers of all species and all colors that covered the landscape - the field, not of the editing services, Cloth of Gold, but of the harvard thesis, cloth of all the walter benjamin, jewels and all the colors and all the ores in the treasury of the universe.  In addition, the cultivation of the poppy, otherwise a wildflower, was considered by gardeners worthy of celebration.  Almost all of the state's landscape painters joined Redmond in choosing to history harvard thesis, paint such subject matter; it would probably be simpler to essay for nursing school, list those who did not. The painters discussed so far, who were among the dominant figures in Southern California art at the end of the 19th century and in the first decade of the 20th, may not have considered themselves as belonging to the Impressionist movement, nor did critics specifically identify them as such.  Certainly those who spent time abroad early in history their careers, such as Wendt, Redmond, and John Gamble, could not have helped being exposed to what was still, for Americans, a radically advanced aesthetic, while these artists may also have become aware of Impressionism through works seen in San Francisco in the 1890s, or in New York and Chicago in copy editing services uk that decade. Still, their celebration of the light and colors of California would appear to have been basically homegrown. The actual identification of California artists as Impressionist would appear to have begun no earlier than 1909, and history and literature, became more common by 1911.The problem is that the critical reception, by and large extremely positive, was directed not toward Wendt, Puthuff, or Redmond, but toward a group of application for nursing school, painters almost totally forgotten today: Jack Gage Stark seems to have been the first, followed by Detlef Sammann, Helena Dunlap, and Ernest Browning Smith. Antony Anderson, the and literature thesis, very perceptive art critic for the Los Angeles Times, unquestionably the major critical force on the local scene and one who would champion the local Impressionist faction until his retirement in for nursing the mid-1920s, noted in history and literature harvard thesis December 1911, By now we are getting accustomed to impressionism in Los Angeles.
Few of us dare laugh at it, for fear that we may become the butt of our own jokes. Twelfth Night Essay Act 2? We are beginning to take it seriously, to study it, to enjoy it.We've had [Jack Gage] Stark, [Detlef] Sammann, Helena Dunlap, [and Ernest] Browning Smith.  It was at this time also that a group of works painted in Pasadena by Frederick Frieseke, an history and literature harvard thesis, artist who was then becoming one of the best-known American painters working in Giverny, France, and editing services uk, who was visiting his parents in California, was seen by Anderson at the Kanst Art Gallery in Los Angeles in December 1911. And Literature Harvard Thesis? They were not on public view but were being framed there. Application For Nursing School? Anderson had stepped into the Kanst studio, to find five wonderful paintings of gardens under sunlight by Frederick C. Frieseke, who had run out from and literature New York to visit his parents here, and who painted these five impressions of gardens with figures on application essay for nursing, his brief stay . They would be eye-openers to our Los Angeles public - educational skyrockets.Yet, Frieseke was a perfectly proper and academic painter a year or two ago, just as Sammann was.  It is not known whether Anderson's comments drew local artists to study these pictures before they were shipped back to Frieseke's New York dealer, William Macbeth, but Kanst did hold an history thesis, exhibition of thesis dublin, Frieseke's work, though the history and literature harvard, date of the show has not been identified.  Thus, Impressionism was in the air in Los Angeles when one of the state's native sons, Guy Rose, returned in 1914 from a long sojourn in Giverny and New York. Born in San Gabriel, Rose was another artist who had trained in San Francisco at the California School of Design before going on for further study in for nursing school Paris in history and literature harvard 1888. He must have become aware of Impressionism there, and found further exposure when he joined the wageningen phd thesis, art colony in and literature Giverny in 1890-91; Rose included several Giverny landscapes among his pictures on view in Los Angeles at Sanborn,Vail Co. in October 1891, and several were shown at essay, the San Francisco Art Association the following year.
After this visit to California, Rose was in New York, and in history and literature thesis 1894 returned to Paris and application essay for nursing, Giverny. Beginning in 1895, Rose taught for history and literature, four years at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, before returning to Paris and Giverny in phd thesis 1899, and then purchasing a house in the latter in history and literature 1904. Having had to walter benjamin baudelaire essays, abandon his art almost completely owing to and literature, lead poisoning around 1897, Rose resumed painting in wageningen 1908, and became one of the most successful of Frieseke's many associates, like him painting colorful figural pictures of lovely young women outdoors, as well as several nudes in interiors. Rose's friendship with Frieseke is thesis beautifully documented in ON THE RIVER (cat. Dublin? 50) of ca. 1910, a depiction of Frieseke's wife, Sarah, or Sadie, in a boat on the Epte River. This was painted at the same time, though from a different vantage point, as one that Frieseke himself painted of his wife (LADY WITH A PARASOL, Cornelia and Meredith Long Collection). The lovely, isolated woman was a staple of latter-day Impressionist painting in Giverny, an object for male delectation and history, admiration. Walter? Indeed, though the Epte River, a branch of the Seine passing through Giverny, was actually a narrow stream, here the shore-less waters open up broadly, completing the subject's isolation within Nature. Like most of his American colleagues working in the Giverny art colony in the first two decades of the history and literature, 20th century, Rose alternated his figural subjects between members of the wageningen phd thesis, artists' families and professional models; unlike their predecessors of the previous decades, they seldom, if ever, called upon history harvard the local populace to pose for them.
One of twelfth act 2, Rose's finest figure pieces painted from the history harvard thesis, model in Giverny is THE GREEN PARASOL (cat. 48), perhaps the wageningen phd thesis, archetypal Giverny figure picture. The beautiful woman wears the favored patterned kimono and holds a decorative parasol, both reflections of the contemporary preference for Japanese motifs, the parasol shielding her from the history harvard thesis, bright sunlight while also isolating her in the foreground plane. And behind her, scintillating green-yellow leaf patterns hanging from unseen trees form a curtain above the walter baudelaire, flickering reflections in the blue water - presumably the Epte River again - offering intriguing color juxtapositions of blue to blue, green to history and literature thesis, green. Much more than Frieseke, however, Rose concentrated on pure landscapes, utilizing the high-key colorism and painterly brushwork of Impressionism, undoubtedly influenced by Claude Monet himself; Rose and his wife, Ethel, were among the very few American painters of his generation in for nursing school Giverny who actually came to know Monet personally.  One of the finest of these landscapes is THE BLUE HOUSE (cat. 49) of ca. 1910; this painting, in fact, is also something of history and literature thesis, a testimonial to that relationship, for the house depicted belonged to Monet, and it was where the artist developed his vegetable, or kitchen garden after he had converted the copy editing, grounds of the history, Maison du Pressoir, his home, into twelfth night act 2, the luxurious floral setting still maintained today. And Literature Harvard? The Blue House, or Maison Bleue, was on the Rue du Chêne, at the other end of town from the Maison du Pressoir.  Presumably the majority of Rose's French pictures were painted in and around Giverny, but Rose traveled quite extensively in dublin France, both to the northern coast at harvard, Honfleur, and in the south to phd thesis, Toulon, Antibes, and Cannes. Having enjoyed a tremendously successful group show late in 1910 at the Madison Gallery in New York along with his fellow Giverny-ites - Frieseke, Richard Miller and Lawton Parker - Rose returned to that city two years later.
He painted in New York and in Wickford, Rhode Island, while teaching an outdoor sketching class at harvard thesis, Narragansett; several figural works depicting lovely young women in the landscape painted at Wickford have recently come onto the art market. Detroit Photo?  Two years later, in October 1914, Rose returned to Los Angeles; the following year he began exhibiting with the California Art Club and teaching at the Stickney Memorial School in Pasadena, where he became director in 1918, while enjoying one-person shows over the next decade at the Steckel, Kanst, and Cannell and Chaffin galleries in Los Angeles, and from 1920 on at the Stendahl Galleries in that city - as well as at the Elizabeth Battey Gallery, Pasadena, the Friday Morning Club in Los Angeles, the Shakespeare Club in Pasadena, and history harvard, the Los Angeles Museum of History, Science, and Art - and while establishing representation at the Macbeth Gallery in New York, where he exhibited from 1913 to 1918. At his death in 1925, Rose was deemed unquestionably the greatest landscape painter of the Impressionist school that California has produced.  Southern California appears to have become immediately aware that a major artistic personality had returned to Los Angeles. Antony Anderson noted that the baudelaire, return of history and literature harvard thesis, Guy Rose. was an walter benjamin baudelaire, event of importance to Los Angeles.  Anderson also recognized immediately that Rose's paintings represented unqualified Impressionism, referring to him in a review of Rose's first Los Angeles show at the Steckel Gallery in history and literature February 1915 as a frank disciple of Monet and his school . Like them, he paints the out-of-doors, its colors broken into beauty by brooding sunlight, caressing air and detroit essay, moving winds. Needless to add that he paints much in the 'high key,' which is the key of nature.  Anderson was later, however, to distinguish Rose's work from that of Monet, finding the former's paintings more poetic, more architectonic, and more pictorial.  Edgar Hunt noted in 1916 that Rose was modern in every respect.  At the same time, Rose was seen as championing the California landscape; when his pictures were on view in February 1916, Anderson noted, Charming as are the pictures from Giverny and thesis, Toulon, they have not the grasp of the solidities that we find in application those from Laguna and La Jolla. They are not so translucently poetic.
Perhaps the painter has always needed the sunlight of his boyhood.  Rose gave a new boost to the spreading of the tenets of Impressionism in the region, first through the and literature thesis, exhibition of his Giverny paintings, and then from his newer work painted along the coastline at Laguna Beach and La Jolla in late 1914, 1915, and 1916. Application Essay For Nursing? Some of these pictures concentrated upon the coves below the rugged coastal cliffs at Laguna Beach, as in history thesis his VIEW OF WOOD'S COVE, ROCKLEDGE (cat. 47), emulating the tradition of walter benjamin, Winslow Homer and, closer to home, William Ritschel up in Monterey, depicting the meeting of the flowing Pacific waters and history and literature harvard, the sloping rocky shoreline. Rose, along with most of the other Impressionists working at Laguna Beach, painted a great many pictures of these coves, but this particular view at Arch Beach, just south of Laguna Beach proper and once a separate community; was especially favored by him. Indeed, one can even identify a serial predisposition in his choice of subject here, perhaps not unrelated to the serial work of his French colleague Monet. There would seem to walter essays, be at and literature thesis, least three similar versions of this scene; VIEW OF WOOD'S COVE, ROCKLEDGE is copy editing services uk a variant of the artist's INCOMING TIDE (Joan Irvine Smith collection) and also of his ARCH BEACH COVE, which was included in the Guy Rose Memorial show at the Stendahl Art Galleries in Los Angeles in February 1926.  He would continue this serialization in some of his subsequent landscape painting on and literature, the Monterey Peninsula. Rose began exhibiting his Arch Beach pictures in his first one-person show held at the Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art in February 1916, and binding dublin, others were shown in January and harvard, October 1917 and March 1918; presumably, then, these works date from 1915-17.
Rose also painted in the High Sierra in the summer of 1916, as well as in his home area of San Gabriel. Rose was one of the few California Impressionists to have had direct contact with a major European Impressionist. Perhaps the only other such painter was Arthur Grover Rider, a disciple of the greatest of the Spanish Impressionists, Joaquín Sorolla. Just as Sorolla was a later master than Monet, so Rider appeared in phd thesis California only in the 1920s, possibly as early as 1924, when the Impressionist movement was already entrenched in thesis the state.  He lived in Los Angeles and painted at Laguna Beach, where he established a studio in ruins the early 1930s. Like so many of the California Impressionists, Rider came from Chicago and history and literature, trained there at copy editing, the Academy of Fine Arts before going to Paris. Rider is said to have become a disciple of history and literature, Sorolla when the latter was teaching at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1911, after which Rider followed him back to Spain;  other reports have them meeting while Rider was painting on the beach at Valencia, Spain. Rider worked there for nine summers, exhibiting in Valencia at the Circulo des Bellas Artes, and application essay for nursing, he was a part of Sorolla's funeral cortege in 1923  Following Sorolla's lead in both subject and pictorial mode, Rider became intensely interested in Spanish fishing boats with their billowing sails, painting in history and literature harvard broad areas of bright colors such subjects as BRINGING IN THE BOATS (cat.
42), a theme he began exhibiting at the Art Institute of essay, Chicago in 1921 and repeated many times. History Harvard? The emphasis here is upon the play of white and brilliant blue, contrasted with the keel of the boat and the figure in dark shadow; the picture gains tremendous immediacy in the unrestrained movement of ruins essay, boat, figure, and water directly toward the viewer.  While Rider is especially renowned for his Valencian scenes painted in the manner of Sorolla, he was also deeply committed to the Southern California landscape, capturing, in such a picture as his 1928 OAK STREET, LAGUNA BEACH (cat. 43) the rural charm of that artists' community where he spent the years 1928-31. In such a painting, the glistening sea, the shaded trees, and the rolling dirt road speak not of privation and primitive living conditions, but the compatibility of man's dwellings within the natural setting, emphasized by so many painters in this most congenial of California art colonies. Guy Rose advanced the history and literature, aesthetics of for nursing, Impressionism in Southern California not only by his own example, but by attracting to the region a number of history and literature harvard, his Giverny colleagues, several of whom joined him in teaching at the Stickney Memorial School.
Richard Emil Miller, primarily a figure painter in binding services the Frieseke mold, was the first of these. Miller arrived in Pasadena in July 1916 and gave weekly criticisms there beginning in October; he remained through March 1917, while living on Arroyo Drive among the art colony there, and painting in the garden of Mrs. Adelbert Fenyes (Eva Scott Fenyes), herself an harvard thesis, artist.  Miller had had a work on view in Los Angeles in 1913 at the opening show of the Museum of History, Science, and twelfth night act 2 4, Art, and Rose included Miller's SCARLET NECKLACE (Hevrdejs collection) in a show he organized for the Museum early in history and literature 1916, which was acquired by the Museum, but deaccessioned in 1966. Miller seems to have had an influence on the local art scene, but more lasting was the later appearance in the Los Angeles area of John Frost and Alson Clark. John (Jack) Frost was the services, son of the great illustrator, Arthur B. Frost; he and history and literature harvard thesis, his brother, Arthur, Jr., had been taken to France by their father for Parisian training in 1906. Frost and his family lived in photo essay Giverny for several years beginning in 1907, during which Arthur Sr.'s closest friend and fishing companion was Guy Rose; John Frost studied there and in Paris with Richard Miller.
After returning to America following three years in a Swiss sanatorium for tuberculosis (1911-14), John Frost settled in Pasadena in and literature harvard the beginning of 1919, and walter, was soon followed by history his parents, all of them undoubtedly attracted both by the favorable climate, given young John's frail health, and by Rose's presence. Indeed, the health-promoting effects of California's climate had long been presented as one of the major attractions for both visitors to and settlers in copy uk Southern California, particularly for those suffering from pulmonary ailments. And Literature Thesis?  As early as 1874, Ben Truman, in his classic Semi-Tropical California, noted: The best medicine for consumption is a dry, warm, equable climate [for which there was] no better place than that portion of the wageningen phd thesis, coast of California from Santa Barbara to San Diego.  California was regarded as The Summerland of America for its ever-salubrious climate.  In 1892, Dr. Walter Lindley was promoting the elevated valleys of Southern California as winter resorts for those with pulmonary diseases, while in the summer the same sites served as vacation hostels  Yet, many warnings were issued against over-optimistic expectations of recovery; as early as 1895, Dr. Norman Bridge warned against the notion that a three-month vacation would be restorative.  Henry Kingman later pointed out that the region was not suited to those suffering from and literature thesis tuberculosis owing to the dampness, and recommended instead the neighboring southwestern states. Wageningen Phd Thesis?  Nevertheless,John Frost thrived in the Southern California climate. Recollecting his years in Giverny with Rose, John Frost was quoted in 1927 as stating that he now finds ten minutes outside of Pasadena, all the atmosphere Guy Rose and history and literature, he found abroad in those days.  Arthur B. Frost, Sr. lived in Pasadena until his death in 1928, and John remained only detroit photo essay long enough to close out his father's affairs, and then returned east.  Frost does not appear to have been particularly attracted either to coastal or Sierra subjects, however, in clear distinction to Rose; rather, his most characteristic subjects were the cottonwood tree and the desert landscape, seen in THE FLOWERING DESERT of 1922. The desert, of course, would have had special attraction for one suffering from history tuberculosis.
In 1926 a critic noted that when John Frost looked toward our mountains and editing, our desert he found exactly the subjects suited to his training and temperament. Harvard Thesis?  Frost's palette is his alone, a pale reflection of Impressionist chromatics, though still relying on color rather than tone. The artist enjoyed the great flat expanse, enlivened by the tufts of green foliage and patches of pink verbena, with a gnarled desert tree at the right, and backed by the almost spectral snow-topped mountains in phd thesis the distance. Arriving in harvard thesis Pasadena for a visit in 1919, the same year as Frost, and settling there in the Arroyo Seco the following year, the otherwise peripatetic Alson Skinner Clark remained in Southern California for the rest of his career. As with so many of his colleagues there, Clark had been born and trained in Chicago, at the Art Institute, before going on to study first in New York and then in Paris. Clark led a nomadic life, mostly abroad, though he continued to exhibit extensively at the Art Institute through the mid-1920s, even after he was resident in night act 2 California; he also enjoyed the first of several one-person shows there in history 1906.
In the summer of 1907, Clark painted a series of pictures, subsequently exhibited in America, of the French chateaux, and afterwards he was in phd thesis Giverny for and literature harvard thesis, a visit in the autumn of 1910.While many of his early Chicago paintings are dark, dramatic cityscapes, Clark had already begun to utilize the strategies of Impressionism even before his visit to Giverny, in winter scenes painted in Quebec in 1906-07, in his subsequent French chateaux pictures, and even more in such works as his 1909 PLAZA DEL SOL, MADRID (cat. 7), with its high coloration and application essay school, bright sunlight. Encouraged by their artist-friend, F. Luis Mora, who had just returned from Spain, Clark, his wife, and Mora sailed for Spain in thesis the spring of that year, disembarked at Algeciras, and traveled extensively, visiting Seville, Granada, Toledo, and Segovia, as well as Madrid, their goal there being primarily to visit the Prado museum. Their hotel was located on essay school, the Plaza del Sol, and Medora Clark, the artist's wife, later recalled that Clark did, however, during the first set of the Prado's closing hours in the early afternoon, paint a big canvas of the Puerta del Sol. Thesis?  Though the picture is luminous, Clark still presents the buildings and trolley cars in a highly structured manner, as formal blocks played off one against the other, with touches of bright color introduced in pedestrians and wagon wheels, distributed throughout the scene. Benjamin? Clark's Spanish collection was initially exhibited to great acclaim at history and literature thesis, the O'Brien Gallery in Chicago in copy editing uk March 1910.  While his stay in Giverny was short, Clark reestablished there his earlier connections with Frieseke, Rose, and Lawton Parker, and joined the rest of the colony there, including Miller and the Frosts; his experience in the French art colony may have led him to adopt a more scintillating, truly Impressionist brushwork.
Back in North America, Clark subsequently painted a much-heralded series of 18 pictures of the building of the Panama Canal in 1913, which were exhibited at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. After settling in California, he joined Rose on the faculty of the Stickney Memorial School (shortly before the latter's debilitating stroke), and in the same year had his first one-person show in the state at Stendahl Galleries in Los Angeles. Even in history and literature thesis his later years, Clark did not abandon his travels, making numerous painting trips to Mexico, the photo essay, first time in history and literature harvard 1923, and he may have returned to Charleston in 1933, having painted there previously in 1917. In addition, in 1902, Clark painted murals in copy uk the Mancel Talcott School in Chicago, and later accepted mural commissions in and literature harvard California, such as the seven panels done for the Carthay Circle Theatre in 1926; four for the First National Bank of Pasadena in 1929; eight oval paintings for the Women's Dining Room of the California Club in Los Angeles in 1928; and in 1932 eight sepia murals for the Teatro Leo Carillo in Los Angeles; he also painted the curtain for Pasadena's Community Playhouse in 1925 . Among the twelfth night act 2, more significant artists active during the later years of the Giverny colony, Clark was one of the painters there devoted almost solely to landscape. History And Literature? He did, occasionally, paint the figure, including a group of ruins essay, portraits created in the middle of the first decade of the 1900s, before he adopted the strategies of Impressionism. One of and literature thesis, his first California pictures and best-known works is a depiction of photo, his wife, REVERIE (MEDORA ON THE TERRACE, cat. History And Literature Thesis? 6) of 1920, set on the patio of their Pasadena home. Beyond a fond and gentle imaging of Clark's beloved mate, the picture is a quintessential Impressionist representation, the languorous, lovely female, suffused in twelfth essay act 2 4 sunlight, with the history and literature thesis, ubiquitous parasol, both a shield and an emblem of sunlight and lassitude. Contemporary evaluations of such imagery differ. Brain Dijkstra views this picture as a perfect expression of the application for nursing school, ideology of passive, reproductive femininity, of a creature 'whose normal physical and mental condition' seemed to be indeed little more than that of a 'sick child'. Harvard?  Will South, on phd thesis, the other hand, views such an image far more positively, noting that, in such California Impressionist figure painting, the interaction with the environment was always positive - an act of enjoyment, meditation, or praise. 
Without meaning to denigrate the many other professional painters working with Impressionist-related strategies and objectives,William Wendt and Guy Rose would seem to have been the most significant and original painters in history and literature harvard thesis Southern California in copy editing services the first three decades of the 20th century. Rose may have had more direct influence on some of his contemporaries, but Wendt was active there far longer, and both artists realized both critical acclaim and significant patronage, not only in California but elsewhere - Wendt in Chicago particularly and Rose in New York.  Though the two do not appear to have been especially close, there is no indication of any sense of rivalry between them, or that most contemporaries regarded them as representative of opposing or competing schools. Harvard Thesis?  They were both active in the California Art Club, and, along with Puthuff, Payne, and twelfth essay, the Wachtels among others, both Wendt and Rose were also members of the history and literature harvard, Ten Painters Club of California, a primarily Impressionist group not unlike their namesake in New York, the Ten American Painters; the short-lived California association held exhibitions in 1919 at the Kanst Art Gallery, at which each of nine members succeeded one another with one-artist shows held between March and July (the one for Jack Wilkinson Smith remained unscheduled). Application Essay For Nursing? Rather, Wendt and Rose seem to have been two of the and literature harvard, brightest stars in a glowing firmament shining upon and celebrating the California landscape. Both artists were also active painting at Laguna Beach. Wendt had been there as early as 1905, and was one of the founders of the Laguna Beach Art Association in 1918, the year he built his studio there.
Rose exhibited with the Association in August and September 1918, May and June 1919, and, after his stroke, his work was shown during all three summer months in 1922.With its year-round temperate climate, along with the natural beauty of uk, its broad swath of cliff-crested beaches and nearby canyons, Laguna Beach had served as one of the earliest painting grounds for Southern California landscape painters, even in the late 19th century. George Gardner Symons, yet another Chicago-born and -trained artist, and a close friend and history and literature harvard, painting-companion of Wendt, had first come to for nursing, California in history harvard thesis the early 1880s. He returned with Wendt in 1897 to paint at Malibu, on commission from Frederick Hastings Rindge, who had acquired Rancho Malibu, one of the original Spanish land grants, in ruins detroit photo 1892. And Literature Harvard Thesis?  Symons was the earliest artist of note (Wendt was the second) to settle in essay for nursing Laguna Beach, building a studio in Arch Beach, just south of Laguna in 1903, and painting there over the next several decades, often large, dynamic coastal scenes such as his SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA COAST (cat. History And Literature? 54). Symons, a major figure who has yet to be studied in depth, carries a confused artistic identity, for he also maintained a studio in the Massachusetts Berkshire Mountains, and is nationally better known for his winter landscapes painted there, than for his colorful, sun-filled scenes painted along the Southern California shore. Likewise, he is often grouped with Edward Redfield and copy uk, the Pennsylvania Impressionists, with whose winter scenes Symons's bear close similarities.  By the history thesis, second decade of the 20th century, Laguna Beach had become a well-known art colony, the most celebrated one west of the Mississippi River.  Edgar Payne was the guiding figure in essay for nursing the establishment of the Art Association, leading his colleagues to adopt the and literature thesis, abandoned town hail and remodel it under his direction; he also became the Association's first president.
The colony there differed from many other art communities in that, unlike, say, Giverny, it did not revolve around one major figure, nor did it, as did Old Lyme, Connecticut, or Provincetown, Massachusetts, foster a significant summer art school.  Around 1917, Rose painted one of his seminal images of California there, his LAGUNA EUCALYPTUS (cat. 46), perhaps the supreme achievement of Rose's fascination with trees, which led him to show the distinguishing characteristics of many varieties both abroad and in America. Eucalyptus trees, imported from Australia, were planted in the 1890s in response to the Timber Culture Act, as an improvement to legalize land claims in the area. They probably came from the seedbeds along the railroad tracks, where the trees were raised by A.C. Carle of El Toro.
Carle had been hired by Dwight Whiting, owner of the Rancho de Los Alisos; about 40,000 to 50,000 trees were grown by twelfth essay scene him. And Literature?  The eucalyptus was celebrated not only in paint but also in poetry, as in Harry Noyes Pratt's The Eucalyptus.  In Rose's picture, the trees are seen from a worm's eye view, their incredibly tall, thin trunks snaking upwards, their masses of foliage framed against essays the sky, their shape echoed in the billowing clouds.The work, sent by the artist late in 1917 to his New York dealer, William Macbeth, who exhibited and sold it early the following year,  offers a succinct rebuttal to the implicit denigration associated with the and literature thesis, expression the eucalyptus school. LAGUNA EUCALYPTUS (cat. 46) is unusual among Rose's pictures painted in that community. Most of his other known Laguna pictures are bright, sunlit coastal scenes, such as the VIEW OF WOOD'S COVE, ROCKLEDGE (cat. 47), emphasizing the steep, craggy rock formations plunging directly into the Pacific. Indeed, the ocean and coast understandably figure in almost all the landscapes painted by the many members of the Laguna art colony; the California coastline had long been recommended as one of the most enticing features of the region, above all because its beauties and attractions may be enjoyed during every month of the year.  William Wendt's THE SILENT SUMMER SEA (cat. 58), painted in 1915, is wageningen a stark, terse, but brilliantly lighted coastal scene, set abruptly above the rocks, with only a precarious toehold in the yellow-brown hillside grasses before the history and literature, visual plunge into the blue waters.
Wendt typically emphasizes the structural solidity of the rocks with slab-like brushstrokes, relieved against the intense blue of the ocean, made all the more immediate through the benjamin, high horizon.Thus, the viewer senses the tremendous breadth of the sea, while at the same time, without any coloristic amelioration or atmospheric haze, the high horizon validates the picture's basic flatness. THE SILENT SUMMER SEA was exhibited with the and literature, California Art Club in October 1915, when it gathered such encomiums as the one that appeared in The Graphic : [Wendt] seems to copy services, have captured the spirit of and literature harvard thesis, 'The Silent Summer Sea.' I believe Mr. Wendt will one day paint marines which will win him world renown. There is a direct understanding for flowing elements, a fine interpretation of texture and glory in the composition. Services?  Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the The Irvine Museum in Resource Library Magazine. Search for harvard, more articles and thesis services, essays on American art in history thesis Resource Library . See America's Distinguished Artists for biographical information on historic artists. This page was originally published in 2003 in Resource Library Magazine . Please see Resource Library's Overview section for ruins essay, more information. Copyright 2012 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation.
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A Guide to Writing a Senior Thesis in History & Literature
essay drawing Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by history thesis VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the twelfth night act 2 scene 4 aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors. Harvard! 1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the benjamin diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the examination of a broad array of drawings by history and literature harvard thesis these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from copy editing services, being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative.
While some artists tended to history and literature harvard thesis foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration. In both instances the baudelaire essays visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the harvard thesis artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and benjamin baudelaire essays subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and harvard thesis rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut. Dublin! Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of history and literature harvard Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of baudelaire this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and history thesis its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Dublin! Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and history direct encounter with the artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and copy editing material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition.
Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about thesis its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the use of industrial fabrication and baudelaire readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into and literature thesis, the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the application essay school idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by harvard Minimalism in night essay act 2 scene, the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the history and literature harvard basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Twelfth Essay Act 2 4! Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and history and literature harvard rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. Copy Services Uk! The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms.
Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of history harvard his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin. The artist drew incessantly and for ruins a variety of history harvard thesis purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to walter benjamin baudelaire execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and history harvard thesis installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the walter benjamin essays graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of and literature thesis thought. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made. Copy Services Uk! Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and history a means of archiving those plans, relating both to essay the future and to the past.
7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for and literature the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb.
8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Rendered in pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of school what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . Thesis! . those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over the course of application school a week.
Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb. 7, 1973), while the word final is history, written and phd thesis underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words. History And Literature! One drawing includes a series of dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to detroit essay art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over history thesis, the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience. Editing Uk! The emphasis on the gap between conception and history and literature perception, or between the idea of the work and the experience of copy editing its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to history and literature harvard thesis be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road.
That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. Twelfth Act 2! . . History And Literature Harvard Thesis! . Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to for nursing make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship. Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of harvard Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to essays resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph.
In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units. History Thesis! In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and editing uk blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is harvard thesis, compelled not only to read across the grids but also to wageningen turn the sheet around to view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the history and literature thesis preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and services uk time. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for history harvard L.A. County Museum) (1971; fig.
4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for wageningen a sculpture made of history thesis industrial sheets of thesis steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an harvard thesis, overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of ruins detroit essay Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. History And Literature! I don’t work from an twelfth night essay scene, a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the history harvard thesis working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.
Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the thesis binding medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. Harvard Thesis! 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in editing services uk, a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the history harvard same title constructed in 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the twelfth night act 2 piece on-site.
The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the history and literature thesis paper. Essay! Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the harvard thesis aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice. Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of services dublin sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and and literature harvard space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results.
By the late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of twelfth night essay Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the harvard ways in ruins photo essay, which a work of art literally comes into being. History Harvard! The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in copy editing services uk, which the importance of a work of art is understood to lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with. Figure 6. History And Literature Thesis! Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on thesis dublin, graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the history and literature harvard thesis properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition.
Despite the accidental nature of copy services uk Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations. 17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of disegno in his conception of history and literature thesis drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artist’s mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the creative process. Services! Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and history harvard mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by ruins detroit essay revealing the and literature harvard predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation.
In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the services dublin generative tension between the random and history thesis the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on baudelaire, which the artist first mapped out the distribution of history harvard pieces of felt and shards of glass. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of copy editing uk ideas into harvard, form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and ruins forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of history harvard colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink. The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is benjamin, related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969. These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into history and literature, one another, eventually drying, cracking, and benjamin staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery.
Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on harvard, paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to ruins photo unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va. Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and history harvard subway drawings—as means of school abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to and literature chance.
To create his ongoing series of essay act 2 4 subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on history harvard, a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to thesis block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in transit determine the composition of each work. History Harvard! Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and application essay incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the and literature thesis tradition of ruins detroit photo drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out history, this prescribed act, which is both meditative and walter benjamin baudelaire absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology. Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the process of and literature harvard thesis production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space.
22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of thesis services dublin their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is thesis, not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the walter artist. Systematic in approach and detached in harvard thesis, procedure, this brand of wageningen embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction.
Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the history artist, he elevated the working through of an walter benjamin baudelaire, idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work. Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on harvard, Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is binding dublin, as much a work of history and literature thesis art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on wageningen, Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations. LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of history sculptural organization and essays compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form.
The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is history harvard, two grid squares tall and two grid squares wide. The grid and the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the baudelaire artist. 25. Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in history and literature harvard, Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists.
They leap to walter essays conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. And Literature Thesis! Rational judgments repeat rational judgments. 3. Irrational judgments lead to photo new experience. 4. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the and literature thesis bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective. While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and benjamin baudelaire essays experiences. Figure 10.
Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on history and literature harvard thesis, graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and detroit photo essay disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an history harvard, opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in New York in the 1960s and walter essays 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is harvard, notable for walter benjamin the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. History Thesis! By 1966 Hesse began making a series of for nursing drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in history and literature harvard thesis, the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of thesis binding compulsive repetition and accumulation. And Literature Thesis! The artist herself gave credence to night scene 4 such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is history, another way of essays repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is and literature thesis, exemplary of this series of works in which the detroit basic element of the and literature thesis circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and repetition.
The recurrence of the walter baudelaire circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. And Literature! Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in wageningen phd thesis, LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on history thesis, the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of walter baudelaire essays a modernist vision of art and history and literature harvard society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making. Ruins Detroit! While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to history harvard thesis uphold the freedom of experimentation with form and copy editing services uk materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and and literature thesis 1970s in the United States not only addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and the industrial conditions of modern society.
28 Drawing was certainly not the thesis binding services only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the harvard generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and binding dublin social world in history and literature, which we live, including the rapid rise of the editing services uk digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions.
Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against history harvard thesis, modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at new forms and ideas. Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for night act 2 instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and and literature performance art, all of which emerged in walter benjamin baudelaire essays, the 1960s and early 1970s.
They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the history and literature thesis tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the properties of walter baudelaire drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in and literature, line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in binding, that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of history and literature harvard thesis a drawing implement, revealing a desire for wageningen a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and history and literature the materials. Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in detroit photo, order to highlight the progressive accumulation of and literature harvard wrinkles and thesis services marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into history and literature harvard, the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. For Nursing! Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over history and literature harvard thesis, the course of five years, using only walter baudelaire, pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to history and literature harvard the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of thesis binding pressure the artist exerted on the paper.
The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas. With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the history and literature harvard conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Application Essay! Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on history, paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on wageningen phd thesis, this internal and history and literature harvard thesis indexical approach to thesis dublin mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for history harvard a sense of completeness. Wageningen Phd Thesis! Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in history and literature harvard thesis, black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig. 13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone.
What exactly is at essay school, stake today in this intertwined desire for and literature harvard thesis an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of wageningen making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of thesis daily events. Uk! Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work.
In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and history and literature thesis repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the thesis binding services rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it. Harvard Thesis! It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and copy uk perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to mark, to track is embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to and literature harvard regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the twelfth essay act 2 scene 4 works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by and literature the couple to The Museum of copy editing services Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of history and literature harvard thesis Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of wageningen Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to history and literature thesis realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the thesis binding services dublin Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of history and literature harvard his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice. See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Copy Services! Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in history thesis, Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of essays it….My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60. 10.
Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to history and literature thesis Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). Application Essay For Nursing School! The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12. Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from history, a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and application essay for nursing Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146.
15. For an in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. History! Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28. 17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and copy editing services uk conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of history and literature harvard thesis atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in detroit, Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19.
Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is history harvard thesis, his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and ruins detroit photo Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61. 21. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from and literature harvard thesis, 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the walter benjamin baudelaire essays installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. History Harvard Thesis! See particularly Robert Morris’s series of wageningen essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and harvard “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in copy editing services, Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993).
23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24. History Thesis! James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25.
In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from ruins detroit photo essay, which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . . . The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed. And Literature Thesis! Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from walter, a New York Collection , ed. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the history harvard thesis end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is ruins detroit, never an endgame but a game comprising different matches.
See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page. All written content 2017 by the authors. Concept and coding 2017 by the Fifth Floor Foundation.
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